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Midterm

Psychology Midterm 1, 2, AA.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PS101
Professor
Mindi Foster
Semester
Fall

Description
Psychology Midterm- Chapter 1 DEFINITIONS Psychobabble: Critical Thinking PSYCHOBABBLE Psychobabble- gives people a sense of control and predictability in a confusing world Confirms our existing beliefs and prejudices, where scientific psychology challenges them. THINKING CRITICALLY Ability and willingness to assess claims and make judgments on the basis of well supported reasoning and evidence rather than emotion and anecdotes. Look for flaws and resist claims that have no support Without it, people can not formulate rational arguments or see through misleading ads that play with their emotions Your opinion, if it ignored reality, is not equal to any other Using this will help to distinguish between psychobabble and serious psychology Ask Questions, Be willing to Wonder o Ask why? Or how? o Look for what hasnt been answered, or what hasnt been asked Define Your Terms o Poorly defined terms lead to misleading answers o If you want to know if something makes someone happy, what is happy? Examine the Evidence o Did it come from a reliable source? o Is there a bias? Dont Oversimplify o I know someone who o dont stereotype or jump to conclusions Avoid Emotional Reasoning o Dont let them stop you from seeing other viewpoints Tolerate Uncertainty o There is no right or wrong answer o There is evidence on both sides Consider Other Interpretations o Think of other ways of thinking about it before you decide on one concrete idea PSYCHOLOGYS PAST (PRE MODERN) Like todays psychologists, they wants to describe, predict, understand and modify behavior. Did not rely on empirical evidence Hippocrates (460BCE-377BCE)- Greek physician- founder of modern medicine. Observed people with head injuries and said the brain must be the ultimate source of pleasures, joys, laughter as well as pain, griefs and tears. People do not become angry or sad or anxious because of actual events, but because of their explanations of those events Phrenology- result of not having empirical methods- said bumps on the skull were responsible for personality, and character traits. It was a pseudoscience MODERN PSYCHOLOGY First psychological lab was created by Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920). His results were the first to be published in a scholarly journal. Leipzig Laboratory concentrated on sensation, perception, reaction times, imagery and attention. It avoided learning, personality and abnormal behavior. STRUCTURALISM Analyzed sensations, images and feelings into basic elements. PROBLEM: everyone has a different experience (subjective method) Asked what happened FUNCTIONALISM Didnt believe experience/consciousness/brain/mind is concrete. Believed it was constantly changing and varies. Asked how and why something happened PROBLEM: no set methodology/ theory PSYCHOANALYSIS Freud Unconscious motives and behaviors (Id, Ego, Superego, Unconscious, Conscious) Desires, conflicts Traumatic childhood experiences Dream interpretation PROBLEM: cocaine addict, not science, not falsifiable TODAYS PSYCHOLOGY Examine human behavior through many lenses: biological, learning, cognitive, sociocultural and psychodynamic BIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE Nerves, chemical balances, hormones, genes How bodily events affect behavior, feelings and thoughts o How mind and body interact in illness and health o Evolutionary psychology- functionalism- focuses on how genetically influenced behavior during evolution may reflect our present behaviors, mental processes and traits. o We cannot really know ourselves before we know our bodies o Nervous system, hormones, brain chemistry, heredity, involuntary influences LEARNING PERSPECTIVE Environment observations, learning behavior o How environment and experience affects a persons actions. o Behaviorists do not invoke the mind or mental states to explain behavior, they observe acts and events. o Behaviorism- dominant school of psychology in North America o Social-cognitive learning theorists combine behaviorism with research on thoughts, values, intentions and expectations. o People learn only by adapting their behavior to the environment, imitating others and thinking about the events happening around them. COGNITIVE PERSPECTIVE to know o What goes on in peoples heads
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