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Psychology Midterm 2.docx

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Mindi Foster

Psychology Midterm 2 Breakdown of the nervous system  Central nervous- (simple)- brain and spinal cord o Receives, interprets and stores info from PNS o Spinal reflexes o Heart beat, breathing  Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) o Receiver, send info to CNS o 2 types of nerves o Somatic Nervous System  Voluntary movements  Sensory nerves: the senses. Takes in and sends to CNS  Motor Nerves: To CNS to muscles, organs ect. o Autonomic Nervous System (involuntary muscles/movements)  Sympathetic (fight/flight)  Speeds things up, adrenaline  Parasympathetic: PARAchute (slow you down)  Slows things down o PARTS OF THE NERVE CELL o Dendrites: receive signals o Axons: transmit signals out of the cell (aXons eXit) o Cell body: decided whether or not to fire neuron o Myelin Sheath: protects neuron, helps accelerate transmission of messages (lack of coordination) o All or None- either it fires or it doesn’t. o Exitatory- increased probability of firing (ON) ex. Waking o Inhibitory- reduced probability of firing (OFF) ex. Sleeping o In order for neurotransmitter to be accepted, it has to fit like a key and lock How Neurons Communicate o Synapses: space between neurons that transfer nerve messages with the help of neurotransmitters  Synaptic bulb  Synaptic cleft  Receptor sites o Action Potential: passing of charge through neurons as the message o Neurotransmitters: facilitate either the firing (excitatory) or non firing (inhibitory) of an action potential in the next cell (released from synaptic vesicles) Chemicals in the nervous system o Different types of neurotransmitters o Serotonin: sleep, appetite, mood, perception, pain regulation  Depression o Dopamine: voluntary movement, pleasure, memory, emotion, learning  Not enough, Parkinson’s, schizo o Acetylcholine: muscle movement, cognition, emotion, memory  Not enough= memory loss, Alzheimer’s  TO REMEMBER: Acetomophine is ADVIL o Norepinephrine: Exitatory (SNS) increases heart rate, helps in arousal, dreaming and emotion  Depression if you have too little o Glutamate: Exitatory-cognition, memory, o GABA: Inhibitory- slows things down (parasympathetic)  Tells body to chill  Too much=sleep problems  Not enough=anxiety o Endorphins  Prolong or limit effects of neurotransmitters  Increase pain tolerance in fight/flight  Feeling of euphoria  Affect appetite, sexual activity, blood pressure, mood, learning, memory  Help cope with stress  Natural pain killer Hormones o Affect organ functioning o Produced in endocrine glands, travel through bloodstream where needed o Melatonin- secreted by pineal gland  Promotes sleep and regulates biological rhythms o Oxytocin-pituitary gland  trust and closeness with others  cuddling hormone  highest at orgasm o Adrenal Hormones- adrenal glands  Fight/flight o Sex Hormones  Androgens (testosterone): sexual arousal, increases masculinity and desire  Estrogens: breasts, menstruations  Progesterone: prepares things of baby (PROGress of baby) MAPPING THE BRAIN o EEG- uses electrodes to map electronic within brain o TMS- uses powerful magnets to temporarily active areas and see effects o Lesions- destroying parts of the brain to see effects on behavior o PET scan- inject chemicals to show which areas are used most. Tracks glucose and oxygen o MRI- magnets to cause and analyze microscopic vibrations within your brain o fMRI- same thing, but quicker (can track oxygen) o Electrical Stimulation: smelling burnt toast TOUR OF THE BRAIN o Pons (On top)-regulates sleep, arousal and dreaming o Medulla (on bottom)- breathing and heartrate (stuff that keeps us alive) o RAS-reticular activating system- screens incoming info, and will route to higher areas o Cerebellum: balance, coordination or movement (sloppy sarah) o Cerebral Cortex: C-Shaped structures that cover the cerebrum o Cerebrum: give us ability to compact information made of grey matter (cell bodies) and white matter (axons) o Corpus Callosum: connects LEFT and RIGHT hemisphere o o Thalamus-traffic officer  Directs sensory info to the cortex EXCEPT smell o Hypothalamus- BELOW THALAMUS: involved in survival-hunger, reproduction, emotion, thirst, body temp o Pituitary Gland- hormone control center. Takes commands from hypothalamus and passes it to glands/organs. (Middle man btwn hypothalamus and other organs) o Amygdala: evaluates emotion (should I be worried/scared?) o Hippocampus- helps route memories to the right storage areas o Limbic System: Made up of  Hypothalamus  Amygdala  Hippocampus o Cerebrum- biggest part of the brain  Left and Right hemisphere and 4 lobes o occipital lobe- visual o temporal lobe-auditory  Wernicke’s area- language comprehension o Parietal lobe-touch  Somato sensory cortex- receives sensory input o Frontal love-higher order cognition, personality  Prefrontal cortex  Motor cortex-voluntary movement  2 hempisheres o corpus collossum: bundle of nerves that seperates the left and right hemisphere o Laterization- one hempisphere dominating a task o Left- analytics, language, logical, symbolic and sequential tasks o Right- special visual (artsy side) o Big picture stuff  Gender differences: men use more left brain in language, women use both  Cultural differences: brains work different in different cultures  Nature vs. Nurture: not hard wires- brain can be different due to experiences  Plasticity: ability of the brain to adapt and grow to changing circumstances  Neuroethics: legal, ethical (pills for ADD) o IMPORTANT-  Images seen with left eye, go to right hemisphere  Images seen with right eye, go to left hemisphere  Split brain: surgery where hemispheres aren’t attached o Corpus collosum is not intact o Parts of the Brain Right side of the brain controls left side of body Left side of the brain controls the right side of the body o Frontal Lobe: deals with complex decision making  Prefrontal cortex: self control of emotions  Motor Cortex: movement o Porital Lobe: pain, touch, pressure  Somatosensory cortex: sensation o Occipital Lobe: visual cortex o Tempral Lobes (temples)  Left: auditory cortex- hear and process language Chapter 5 11/5/2012 6:23:00 PM Consciousness- awareness of internal and external stimuli  Awareness of external events  Your awareness of internal sensations  Circadian Rhythms o 24 hour biological cycles  rely on external (night/day) and internal cues  endogeneous- cued from within o Biological Clock  Eye: receptors react to light/dark and send to SCN  Suprachaismatic nucleus (SCN): send message to body/brain  Hormones: affect brain and behavior o Internal desynchronization  When you fly across multiple time zones  Energy levels, motor control o Long term Biological Rhythm  Seasonal Affective disorder (SADS) o Sadness, lethargy, drowsiness and craving carbs  PMS o Hormone levels rise and fall o No correlation between emotion levels and menstrual cycle Sleep Stages (Ultradain Rhythm) o Sleep and Wake Cycles  Recorded in EEG, EMG and EOG  Freud said there were different levels of awareness (brain waves) o Theta o Alpha o Delta o  4 stages o 1- light sleep-lasts 1-7 minutes (theta waves). Easily awakened o 2- sleep spindles, 10-25 minutes, o 3- slow wave sleep, 30 minutes. Deep breathing, harder to wake o 4- delta waves. Poralysis o THEN, stages start to reverse… 1,2,3,4,3,2,REM,3,4,3,2 o REM- rapid eye movement  Irregular breathing and pulse rate, extremely relaxed  Beta waves (active brain)  Vivid dreaming  Why is sleep important? o Memory consolidation o Improves insight and problem solving o Allows body and mind to recover  Sleep deprivation o Impair attention, reaction time, motor coordination, decision making o Hallucinations and delusions o Decreases new cell development (growth hormone at peak when sleeping) o Increase in stress hormone (cortisol: eats away at your organ
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