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Final Review PS102.docx

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Carolyn Ensley

Motivation & Emotion part II Achievement: In Search of Excellence -The achievement motive is the need to master difficult challenges, to outperform others, and to meet high standards of excellence Individual Differences in the Need for Achievement -Subjects’ need for achievement can be measured effectively with the Thematic Apperception Test -The TAT test is a projective test, one that requires subjects to respond to vague, ambiguous stimuli in ways that may reveal personal motives and traits -People who score higher in the need for achievement tend to work harder and more persistently on tasks than people low in the need for achievement -Subjects high in the need for achievement tend to select tasks of immediate difficulty Situational Determinants of Achievement Behaviour -The tendency to pursue achievement in a particular situation depends on the following factors: -The strength of one’s motivation to achieve success -One’s estimate of the probability of success for the task at hand -The incentive value of success - rewards for success on the specific task -The joint influence of these situational factors may explain why high achievers prefer tasks of immediate difficulty -A person’s fear of failure must also be considered to understand achievement behaviour The Elements of Emotional Experience -Emotion involves (1) a subjective conscious experience (the cognitive component) accompanied by (2) bodily arousal (the physiological component) and by (3) characteristic over expressions (the behavioural component) The Cognitive Component: Subjective Feelings -People often have difficulty describing their emotions to others -People’s cognitive appraisals of events in their lives are key determinants of the emotions they experience -Research on affective forecasting – efforts to predict one’s emotional reactions to future events – demonstrates that people reliably mispredict their future feelings in response to good and bad events, such as getting a promotion at work, taking a long-awaited vacation, getting a poor grade in an important class, or being fired at work -People tend to be reasonably accurate in anticipating whether events will generate positive or negative emotions The Physiological Component: Diffuse and Multifaceted Autonomic Arousal -Emotions are accompanied by visceral arousal – Ex. A knot in your stomach -Much of the discernible physiological arousal associated with emotion occurs through the actions of the autonomic nervous system, which regulates the activity of glands, smooth muscles, and blood vessels -One prominent part of emotional arousal is the galvanic skin response (GSR), an increase in the electrical conductivity of the skin that occurs when sweat glands increase their activity -The connection between emotion and autonomic arousal provides the basis for the polygraph or lie detector, a device that records autonomic fluctuations which a subject is questioned Affective Neuroscience: Emotions and the Brain -The autonomic responses that accompany emotions are ultimately controlled in the brain -The hypothalamus, amygdala, and adjacent structures in the limbic system have long been viewed as the seat of emotions -The amygdala plays a central role in the acquisition of conditioned fears -Other parts of the brain that affect emotion: -Prefrontal cortex – contributes to efforts to voluntarily control emotional reactions -Front portion of the cingulate cortex – implicated I the processing of pain-related emotional distress -Neural circuit called the mesolimbic dopamine pathway – plays a major role in the experience of pleasurable emotions associated with rewarding events -Mirror neurons – appear to play a crucial role in the experience of the important emotion of empathy The Behavioural Component: Nonverbal Expressiveness -Emotions are expressed in “body language” -Subjects are generally successful in identifying six fundamental emotions: happiness, sadness, anger, fear, surprise, and disgust Culture and the Elements of Emotion -Subjects are more accurate in recognizing emotions expressed by people from their own culture -Cultural disparities have also been found in regard to nonverbal expressions of emotion -Display rules are norms that regulate the appropriate expression of emotions -These norms vary from one culture to another Theories of Emotion James-Lange Theory -The conscious experience of emotion results from one’s perception of autonomic arousal Cannon-Bard Theory -Physiological arousal may occur without the experience of emotion -People experiencing very different emotions, such as fear, joy, and anger, exhibit almost identical patterns of autonomic arousal Schacter’s Two Factor Theory -The experience of emotion depends on two factors: (1) autonomic arousal and (2) cognitive interpretation of that arousal Evolutionary Theories of Emotion -Emotions are largely innate reactions to certain stimuli -Emotion evolved before thought -People exhibit eight to ten primary emotions -Evolutionary theorists propose that the many emotions people experience are produced by (1) blends of primary emotions and (2) variations in intensity Human Development Across the Life Span -Development – the sequence of age-related changes that occur as a person progresses from conception to death Progress before Birth: Prenatal Development -Conception occurs when fertilization creates a zygote – a one-celled organism formed by the union of a sperm and an egg -The prenatal period extends from conception to birth, usually encompassing nine months of pregnancy The Course of Prenatal Development Germinal Stage -The first phases of prenatal development, encompassing the first two weeks after conception -During the implantation process, the placenta begins to form -The placenta is a structure that allows oxygen and nutrients to pass into the fetus from the mother’s bloodstream, and bodily wastes to pass out to the mother Embryonic Stage -The second stage of prenatal development, lasting from two weeks until the end of the second month -Most of the vital organs and bodily systems begin to form in the developing organism, which is now called an embryo Fetal Stage -The third stage of prenatal development, lasting from two months through birth -The first two months of this stage bring rapid bodily growth, as muscles and bones begin to form -Sex organs start to develop during the third month -During the final three months, brain cells multiply at a brisk pace -Between 22 and 26 weeks, the fetus reaches the age of viability – the age at which a baby can survive in the event of a premature birth Environmental Factors and Prenatal Development -A mother’s habits can have long-term health consequences -Teratogens are any external agents, such as drugs or viruses, that can harm an embryo or fetus Maternal Drug Use -Most drugs consumed by a pregnant woman can pass through the membranes of the placenta -Fetal alcohol syndrome is a collection of congenital (inborn) problems associated with excessive alcohol use during pregnancy -Fetal alcohol syndrome is the most common known cause of intellectual disability and it is related to an increased incidence of difficulty in school, depression, suicide, drug problems, and criminal behaviour in adolescence and adulthood -Smoking appears to increase a mother’s risk for miscarriage, stillbirth, and prematurity, and newborn’s risk for sudden infant death syndrome Maternal Illness and Exposure to Toxins -The fetus is largely defenceless against infections because its immune system matures relatively late in the prenatal period Maternal Nutrition and Emotions -The developing fetus needs a variety of essential nutrients -Severe maternal malnutrition increases the risk of birth complications and neurological defects for the newborn Fetal Origins of Disease -Events during prenatal development can “program” the fetal brain in ways that influence one’s vulnerability to various types of illness decades later – Ex. Schizophrenia -Maternal nutrition continues to affect the newborn during the breastfeeding period The Wondrous Years of Childhood Exploring the World: Motor Development -Motor development refers to the progression of muscular coordination required for physical activity Basic Principles of Motor Development -One is the cephalocaual trend – the head-to-foot direction of motor development -Children tend to gain control over the upper part of their bodies before the lower part -The proximodistal trend is the centre-outward direction of motor development -Maturation is development that reflects the gradual unfolding of one’s genetic blueprint – it is a product of genetically programmed physical changes that come with age – as opposed to experience and learning Understanding Developmental Norms -Developmental norms indicate the median age at which individuals display various behaviours and abilities Cultural Variations and their Significance -Relatively rapid motor development has been observed in some cultures that provide special practice in basic motor skills -As children in any culture grow older, they acquire more specialized motor skills, some of which may be unique to their culture Easy and Difficult Babies: Differences in Temperament -Temperament refers to characteristic mood, activity level, and emotional reactivity -Infants show consistent differences in emotional tone, tempo of activity, and sensitivity to environmental stimuli very early in life -In a longitudinal design, investigators observe one group of participants repeatedly over a period of time -In a cross-sectional design, investigators compare groups of participants of differing age at a single point in time -Cohort effects occur when differences between age groups are due to the groups growing up in different time periods -Longitudinal designs tend to be more sensitive to developmental changes -Individual differences in temperament appear to be influenced to a considerable degree by heredity Early Emotional Development: Attachment -Attachment refers to the close, emotional bonds of affection that develop between infants and their caregivers -The first important attachment is with the mother – formed by 6 to 8 months of age -Separation anxiety is emotional distress seen in many infants when they are separated from people with whom they have formed an attachment -Separation anxiety peaks at around 14 to 18 months and then begins to decline Theories of Attachment -Initially, behaviourists argued that this special attachment between infant and mother develops because mothers are associated with the powerful, reinforcing event of being fed Patterns of Attachment -The strange situation procedure – infants are exposed to a series of 8 separation and reunion episodes to assess the quality of their attachment -If needed to know the various types of attachments that are not positive refer to p. 502 -The type of attachment that emerges between an infant and mother may depend on the nature of the infant’s temperament as well as the mother’s sensitivity Becoming Unique: Personality Development -A stage is a developmental period during which characteristic patterns of behaviour are exhibited and certain capacities become established -Stage theories assume that (1) individuals must progress through specified stages in a particular order because each stage builds on the previous stage, (2) progress through these stages is strongly related to age, and (3) development is marked by major discontinuities that usher in dramatic transitions in behaviour Erikson’s Stage Theory Stage Year Label 1 1 Trust vs. mistrust 2 2/3 Autonomy vs. shame and doubt 3 4-6 Initiative vs. guilt 4 6-puberty Industry vs. inferiority 5 Adolescence Identity vs. confusion 6 Early adulthood Intimacy vs. isolation 7 Middle adulthood Generatively vs. self-absorption 8 Late adulthood Integrity vs. despair The Growth of Thought: Cognitive Development -Cognitive development refers to transitions in youngsters’ patterns of thinking, including reasoning, remembering, and problem solving Overview of Piaget’s Stage Theory Stage Year Label Description 1 Birth-2 Sensorimotor period Coordination of sensory input and motor responses; development of object permanence 2 2-7 Preoperational period Development of symbolic thought marked by irreversibility, centration, and egocentrism 3 7-11 Concrete operational period Mental operations applied to concrete events; mastery of conservation, hierarchical classification 4 11-adulthood Formal operational period Mental operations applied to abstract ideas; logical, systematic thinking -Assimilation involves interpreting new experiences in terms of existing mental structures without changing them -Accommodation involves changing existing mental structures to explain new experiences -Object permanence develops when a child recognizes that objects continue to exist even when they are no longer visible -Conservation is Piaget’s term for the awareness that physical quantities remain constant in spite of changes in their shape or appearance -Centration is the tendency to focus on just one feature of a problem, neglecting other important aspects -Irreversibility is the inability to envision reversing an action -Egocentrism in thinking is characterized by a limited ability to share another person’s viewpoint -Animism – the belief that all things are living Neo-Piagetian Theories -An increase in information-processing capacity is one of the attributes that forms the basis of cognitive development -M-capacity relates to the maximum number of mental concepts that an individual can keep in mind at one time Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory -Places enormous emphasis on how children’s cognitive development is fuelled by social interactions with parents, teachers, and older children who can provide invaluable guidance -Argued that language acquisition plays a crucial, central role in fostering cognitive development -The zone of proximal development (ZPD) is the gap between what a learned can accomplish alone and what he or she can achieve with guidance from more skilled partners -Scaffolding occurs when the assistance provided to a child is adjusted as learning progresses Are Some Cognitive Abilities Innate? -Habituation is a gradual reduction in the strength of a response when a stimulus event is presented repeatedly -Dishabituation occurs if a new stimulus elicits an increase in the strength of a habituated response -Infants appear to understand surprisingly complex concepts that they have had virtually no opportunity to learn about Critical Periods in Development -The term critical period is traditionally used to suggest that if the ability or knowledge is not acquired at that point, it will not be possible to acquire it later -The term sensitive period suggests an optimal period for acquisition but one that does not obviate acquisition at a later point -Researchers have mapped out some milestones in the development of children’s understanding of mental states -If asked about these states – p. 513 The Development of Moral Reasoning Kohlberg’s Stage Theory -Moral development is determined by cognitive development -The way individuals think out moral issues depends on their level of cognitive development Level Stage Name Description Preconventional 1 Punishment orientation Right and wrong are determined by what is level punished 2 Naïve reward orientation Right and wrong are determined by what is rewarded Conventional 3 Good boy/good girl Right and wrong are determined by close others’ level orientation approval or disapproval 4 Authority orientation Right and wrong are determined by society’s rules and laws, which should be obeyed rigidly Postconventional 5 Social contract orientation Right and wrong are determined by society’s level rules, which are viewed as fallible rather than absolute 6 Individual principles and Right and wrong are determined by abstract conscience orientation ethical principles that emphasize equity and justice The Transition of Adolescence -Adolescence is a transitional period between childhood and adulthood -Begins at around age 13 and ends at about age 22 -Not universal across cultures Physiological Changes -Adolescent growth spurt – phase of rapid growth in height and weight -Recent evidence suggests that rising levels of leptin, the recently discovered hormone that reflects the body’s fat cell storage, may provide the crucial signals for these growth spurts -Pubescene is used to describe the two-year span receding puberty, during which the changes leading to physical and sexual maturity take place -Secondary sex characteristics – physical features that distinguish one sex from the other but that are not essential for reproduction – Ex. Breast growth -Puberty is the stage during which sexual functions reach maturity, which marks the beginning of adolescence -Primary sex characteristics – the structures necessary for reproduction -In females, the onset of puberty is typically signalled by menarche – the first occurrence of menstruation -For girls it starts at 12 ½-16 years old, and or boys around 14-18 Natural Development: The Teen Brain -The prefrontal cortex appears to be the last area of the brain to fully mature, and this maturation may not be complete until one’s mid-20s -Other factors also contribute to risky behaviour during adolescence, one of which is susceptibility to peer influence Time of Turmoil? -Adolescence is a time of change and transition -Adolescence is a period of increased risk for a variety of problems -Suicide rates among teens have increased alarmingly over the past few decades -Attempted suicides are much higher for females than males -Those most at risk for continued bullying during teen years were characterized by troubled relationships with the parents and friends The Search for Identity -Erikson says that the premier challenge of adolescence is the struggle to form a clear sense of identity -This struggle involves working out a stable concept of oneself as a unique individual and embracing an ideology or system of values that provides a sense of direction -Although the struggle for a sense of identity can be a lifelong process, it does tend to be especially intense during adolescence -Marcia’s four identity statuses: -Identity achievement – successful achievement of a sense of identity -Identity foreclosure – unquestioning adoption of parental or societal values -Identity moratorium – active struggling for a sense of identity -Identity diffusion – absence of struggle for identity, with no obvious concern about it -People tend to reach identity achievement at later ages than originally envisioned -By late adolescence, only 22-26 percent of the sample had reached identity achievement Emerging Adulthood as a New Developmental Stage -According to Arnett, the years between age 18 and 25 have become a distinct, new transitional stage of life -A feature of emerging adulthood is that it is an age of possibilities – it tends to be a time of great optimism about one’s personal future -It is a self-focused time of life The Expanse of Adulthood Personality Development The Question of Stability -The evolution of a personality continues through the fifth decade of life -It appears that personality in adulthood is characterized by both stability and change Erikson’s View of Adulthood -Divided adulthood into three stages -In the early adulthood stage, called intimacy vs. isolation, the key concern is whether one can develop the capacity to share intimacy with others -In middle adulthood, generatively vs. self-absorption, the key challenge it to acquire a genuine concern for the welfare of future generations, which results in providing unselfish guidance to younger people and concern with one’s legacy -During the late adulthood stage, called integrity vs. despair, the challenge is to avoid the tendency to dwell on the mistakes of the past and on one’s imminent death - people need to find meaning and satisfaction in their lives, rather than wallow in bitterness and resentment Transitions in Family Life -Many of the important transitions in adulthood involve the changes in family responsibilities and relationships -The family life cycle is a sequence of stages that families tend to progress through Adjusting to Marriage -Partners that cohabit prior to getting married ought to have an easier transition and greater marital success -One major source of conflict in many new marriages is the negotiation of marital roles in relation to career commitments Adjusting to Parenthood -The arrival of the first child represents a major transition and the disruption of old routines can be extremely stressful -Dual roles for the mother also increase the level of stress and the tendency to experience marital dissatisfaction -Parents exhibit lower marital satisfaction than comparable nonparents -Stress is greatest in new parents who have overestimated the benefits and underestimated the costs of their new role Adjusting to the Empty Nest -Recent evidence suggests that most parents adjust effectively to the empty nest transition -The improvement in marital satisfaction appeared to be primarily to an increase in the women’s enjoyment of their time with their husbands -These young adults are taking longer to make key life transitions than ever before – these returning adult children to live with their parents are referred to as boomerang children Aging and Physiological Changes -The life expectancies for Canadian women and men have increased in recent years -When elderly people are asked how old they feel, they mostly report feeling quite a bit younger than they actually are -Women experience menopause -Menopause is also accompanied by an elevated vulnerability to depression Aging and Neural Changes -A dementia is an abnormal condition marked by multiple cognitive deficits that include memory impairment -Dementia and senility are not part of the normal aging process -“The term senility has no valid medical or psychological meaning, and its continued use simply perpetuates the myth that drastic mental decline is a product of normal aging” -Alzheimer’s accounts for roughly 70% of all dementia -p. 529 Aging and Cognitive Changes -General intelligence is fairly stable throughout most of adulthood, with a small decline in average test scores often seen after age 60 -Fluid intelligence refers to basic information-processing skills -Crystallized intelligence refers to the application of accumulated knowledge -The memory losses associated with normal aging tend to be moderate and are not experienced by everyone -The most reliable decrements are usually seen in episodic memory and working memory, with less consistent losses observed in tasks involving procedural memory and semantic memory -Many people remain capable of great intellectual accomplishments well into their later years -People who continue to work further into old age, especially people who remain in mentally demanding jobs, tend to show smaller decrements in cognitive abilities than their age-mates -Memory training programs lead to measurable changes in the brain Social Behaviour Person Perception: Forming Impressions of Others -Person perception is the process of forming impressions of others Effects of Physical Appearance -Judgments of others’ personality are often swayed by their appearance, especially their physical attractiveness -Attractive people are viewed more positively -You might guess that physical attractiveness would influence perceptions of competence less than perceptions of personality, but the data suggest otherwise -Intelligence is more strongly related to earnings than goods looks Cognitive Schemas -Even though every individual is unique, people tend to categorize one another -Social schemas are organized clusters of ideas about categories of social events and people -Ex. “dumb jocks” “frat rats” Stereotypes -Stereotypes are widely held beliefs that people have certain characteristics because of their membership in a particular group -There are: age stereotypes, gender stereotypes, ethnic stereotypes, and occupational stereotypes -Save time by simplifying our social world -Immediate style – sitting closer, more
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