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Psych Midterm 2 Study Notes.docx

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Wilfrid Laurier University
Carolyn Ensley

Psych Midterm 2 Study Notes Chapter 8 – Language and Thought -language is: CS MC -creative -structured -meaningful -communicative Structure of Language Phonemes: smallest unit of speech -don’t correspond to letters in alphabet -only about 40 in English Morphemes: the smallest unit of meaning in language -can be a word, but doesn’t have to be -some are single syllables, some single letters Syntax: a system of rules that specify how words can be arranged -GRAMMAR Language Development Babbling: becomes more and more complex -lasts until about 18 months -vocabulary spurt happens at 18-24 months Overextensions: word is used too liberally -ex. daddy = man Underextensions: general word but child restricts it -ex. drink = juice Overregularization: when grammar rules are wrongly generalized to irregular cases -ex. i hitted the ball Metalinguistic Awareness: growing appreciation of ambiguities, and word play -irony, and sarcasm Theories of Language Acquisition Behaviourists -learn through direct reinforcement/punishment from parents -also imitation and shaping CON  doesn’t explain creativity or errors in speech Nativists -biologically and physiologically equipped for speech -Language Acquisition Device -critical period: between 2 and puberty CONS acquisition not completed as early as they thought -diversity of language and grammar hard to explain Interactionist -biology and experience are both important Problem Solving -initial state  set of operations  goal state *problem solving depends on your preferences, experience, knowledge and the situation Schemas  step-by-step scripts for selecting info -experts = many schemas for problem solving -experience develops schemas and they help to solve specialized problems -novices rely on general problem-solving methods, use working memory -experts  large number of schemas to guide them Algorithm: formulas/procedures that automatically generate correct solutions -but may be time consuming Heuristic: general problem-solving strategies that we apply to certain situations -rule of thumb, mental short-cuts Problems in Problem Solving Mental Set: stay w/ one approach to a situation Functional Fixedness: fixed in perception of typical use of object -blinded to new ways to use object Irrelevant Info: people incorrectly assume that all numerical info is necessary to solve problem -need to find out what’s relevant Restructuring: insight when you look at a problem from different view Creativity: involves a conceptual reorganization to generate something new Incubation: creative solutions suddenly pop into mind after you give up Deductive Reasoning: reason from general principle to a conclusion Inductive Reasoning: start w/ specific facts, and develop a general principle Chapter 9 – Intelligence Characteristics of a Good Test (VSR) Validity: measures what is intended to measure Standardization: getting norms for comparing scores Reliability: gives nearly the same score each time a person takes it Evaluation of Intelligence Testing Galton -thought that smart people should show exceptional sensory acuity -tried to test mental ability by measuring sensory processes -with little success Binet -created the first useful test of general mental ability -expressed a child’s score in terms of mental age -a mental age of 9 means they have the typical mental ability of a 9 year old Terman (Stanford-Binet) -score based on intelligence quotient (IQ) -IQ was child’s mental age/real age x100 Wechsler -decided to improve on measurement of intelligence in adults -made a distinction for verbal IQ, performance IQ, and total IQ -made NEW scoring based on normal distribution Modern IQ Tests -IQ scores indicate where you fall in the normal distribution -average is set to 100 -standard deviation is set to 15 Mental Retardation -subnormal general mental ability w/ deficiencies in adaptive skills, originating before 18 -from below 75 IQ -mild = 51-70 -moderate = 36-50
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