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Psych Midterm 1 Study Notes.docx

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Carolyn Ensley

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Psych Midterm 1 Study Notes Chapter 6 – Learning Learning: process by which experience produces an enduring change in behaviour (or capabilities) Conditioning: learning associations between events that occur Behaviourism and Learning -explained learning only in observable events (nothing mental) -2 kinds of conditioning -Classical/Pavlovian/ Respondent (CPR) -Operant/ Skinnerian/ Instrumental (OSI) Classical Conditioning -based on internal responses to naturally occurring stimuli -but a stimulus gets the capacity to evoke a response that was originally evoked by another stimulus -PAVLOV UCS: elicits a UCR without prior learning UCR: reflexive response elicited by UCS w/o prior learning CS: stimulus that, through association w/ UCS, comes to elicit a CR similar to the original UCR CR: response elicited by a CS **UCR and CR are the same! -but what elicits them is different** Types of CS-UCS Pairing -Forward Short Delay: CS (tone) still present when UCS (food) presented **optimal for learning -Forward Trace: CS (tone) appears, then goes off, then UCS (food) presented -best if delay is less than 2-3 seconds -Simultaneous: presented at same time -learning is slower -Backward: CS presented after UCS (food) -almost NO learning Acquisition -the initial stage of learning -factors that enhance acquisition: -forward (short delay) pairing -time between CS and UCS is short -intense, aversive UCS can produce 1-trial learning Extinction -process in which CS is presented in absence of UCS -eventually causes CR to weaken and disappear Spontaneous Recovery -the reappearance of an extinguished response after a period of non-exposure to the CS -usually weaker than initial CR, extinguishes quicker Generalization -stimuli similar to initial CS elicits a CR -the more similar, the greater the generalization -adaptive b/c aids in survival Discrimination -CR occurs for one stimulus, but not another -opposite of generalization -the less similar, the easier it is to discriminate Higher-Order Conditioning -a CS functions as if it’s a UCS -new CRs are built on already established CRs Response Dominance: relative strengths of responses elicited by the CS and UCS before they’re paired -best results when UCS is stronger Extinction of Phobias -gradual – systematic desensitization -non-gradual – flooding, real events, implosion, imagined events Classical Conditioning Influences: -attraction to other people -positive, negative attitudes -conditioned aversions -dislike certain food b/c you were sick -anticipatory nausea and vomiting (ANV) -common in cancer patients Operant Conditioning (OSI) -learning through consequences -assumes that behaviours are voluntary (under our control) Thorndike’s Law of Effect -response following satisfying consequence becomes MORE likely to occur -response following unsatisfying consequence becomes LESS likely to occur Reinforcers and Punishers Reinforcers: increase likelihood of a behaviour Punishers: decrease likelihood of a behaviour Primary Reinforcer: stimuli that reinforce by satisfying a biological need Secondary Reinforcer: acquire reinforcement through association with primary reinforcer (ex. money, praise) Positive: adding something to enviro Negative: removing something from enviro Reinforcement Punishment Positive -increase behaviour -decrease behaviour -add to enviro -add to enviro Ex. candy Ex. slap Negative -increase behaviour -decrease behaviour -remove from enviro -remove from enviro Ex. pain Ex. no TV Developmental Implications -have to be able to naturally produce a behaviour, OR….. Shaping: reinforce successive approximations towards a final response -positive reinforcement is best Chaining -reinforce each response w/ opportunity to perform next response -develops a sequence of behaviours Interval/Timing -between when behaviour is done and when you get reward -fixed or variable Frequency/ Scheduling -continuous reinforcement -every response is reinforced -partial reinforcement -only some responses are reinforced Partial Reinforcement Schedules (RIFV) Ratio: certain % of responses are reinforced Interval: certain amount of time must elapse between reinforcements Fixed: reinforcement occ
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