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Chapter 12 MOTIVATION detailed textbook notes.docx

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Wilfrid Laurier University
Eileen Wood

Chapter 12: Motivation Motivation: an inferred process within a person or animal that causes movement either toward a goal or away from an unpleasant situation Intrinsic: the pursuit of an activity for its own sake Extrinsic: the pursuit of an activity for external rewards (e.g. money or fame) Motives to Eat The Biology of Weight Genetic Influences on Weight and Body Shape Set point: the genetically influenced weight range for an individual; it is maintained by biological mechanisms that regulate food intake, fat reserves and metabolism  Basal metabolism rate: rate at which the body burns calories for energy  Everyone has fixed number of fat cells  Obese people have twice the number of fat cells & are bigger  High heritability of weight, body fat & amount of brown fat (fat that burns calories) a person has – weight is gained in the same places Leptin (hormone) can affect how much a person eats because it affects the hypothalamus in telling the body when it should eat if reserves are too low  It plays its most crucial role early in life by altering the brain chemistry that influences how much a person later eats  It helps regulate body weight by strengthening neural circuits in the hypothalamus that reduce appetite and by weakening circuits that stimulate it – during a critical period in infancy, the point is set The Overweight Debate  People are become increasingly obese – reasons for this have little to do with the obesity gene, but more diet  Obesity epidemic is in fact fat people getting fatter and thin people staying the same  Exercise is a major influence on weight – it boosts metabolic rate even in people who are genetically susceptible to obesity Environmental Influences on Weight 1. Increased abundance of fast food and processed food… that are inexpensive, readily available, and high in sugar, starch, fat and carbohydrates – as humans, we have a tendency to store calories in the form of fat to be prepared in case of starvation 2. The widespread consumption of high-sugar, high-calorie soft drinks: we don’t have a mechanism that would compensate for fluid intake by lowering food intake 3. The sharp decline in exercise & other expenditures of energy… because of remote controls, a preference for sedentary activities & the speed and convenience of driving rather than walking/biking 4. The increased portion sizes of food and drink. 5. The abundance of highly varied foods: diets that restrict a person to only some foods are successful at first, but as food becomes more varied, people eat more and gain more weight (e.g. people will eat more M&Ms when they are in a bowl containing 10 colours than the same number of candies containing only 7 colours. Other influences: package sizes, plate sizes (bigger = eat more), cues for how much has been eaten (e.g. buffets taking dirty plates away), kitchen & table layouts, distraction (e.g. TV & friends) Culture & the Ideal Body  While people of all ethnicities and social classes have been getting fatter, the cultural ideal for women in the united states, Canada and Europe has been getting thinner  Voluptuous, big-breasted women are associated with a motherly image – that’s why that body type was more desired in times where women would take the “stay-at- home-mom” job  Now, with women entering the work force, the same figure is seen as soft, lazy, weak & therefore women have tried to look more boyish & muscular to avoid being perceived as soft, feminine and dumb  Evolution has designed women to store fat, which is essential for the onset of menstruation, pregnancy & nursing, and, after menopause, for the production of estrogen The Body as a Battleground: Eating Disorders  Many women are caught in a battle between their biology and their culture  Eating disorders: an irrational fear of being fat Bulimia: an eating disorder characterized by episodes of excessive eating (bingeing) followed by forced vomiting or use of laxatives (purging) Anorexia [nervosa]: fear of being fat, a distorted body image, radically reduced consumption of food & emaciation – can die of heart or kidney failure or complications of osteoporosis  Can be influenced by depression, anxiety, perfectionism, low self-esteem, a distorted body image, drug use & perceived pressure from peers to lose weight, & culture factors such as the image of the “ideal thin body” Other eating disorders: binge-eating disorder (just eating A LOT); chewing food & then spitting it out; others are normal weight but take no joy in eating because they worry obsessively about gaining weight; some develop phobias of a certain type of food  All of these disorders involve an unhealthy attitude toward food, weight & the body Motives to Love The Biology of Love Passionate “romantic” love: whirlwind of intense emotions and sexual passion – crushes, infatuations, “love at first sight”, in early stages of love affairs – may burn out quickly or evolve into companionate love  Olfactory cues in a potential partner’s smell that can turn you on or off  Physical cues in the pp’s voice, shape & how similar their face is to yours  Dopamine jolts of reward  Arousal & excitement provided by adrenaline  Key hormones that turn this into companionate love Companionate love: affection & trust Love has an evolutionary purpose: to preserve the species – share common neural mechanisms as pair-bonding between a child and its mother  Hormone oxytocin: plays crucial role in the attachment-caregiving system, influencing feelings & expressions of love, caring & trust between mothers & babies and between friends and lovers (e.g. when partners were given oxytocin, they showed more non-verbal cues of love) Endorphins: chemical substances in the nervous system that are similar in structure and action to opiates; involved in pain reduction, pleasure & memory  When animals cry & their mom licks them, it releases endorphins in their body – endorphins are like a replacement for mom  These studies suggest that endorphin-stimulated euphoria may be a child’s initial motive for seeking affection & cuddling; a child attached to a parent is a child addicted to love The Psychology of Love Proximity effect: the people who are nearest to you geographically are most likely to be dearest to you too Similarity effect: Similarity – in looks, attitudes, beliefs, values, personality & interests – is attractive to human beings; we tend to choose friends and loved ones who are most like us  Match-making sites administer questionnaires to pair people together – can vary in effectiveness because many people think they know exactly what they want, and they meet someone who has a few of those qualities but is missing a whole bunch of qualities that suddenly become essential The Attachment Theory of Love Attachment theory of love: people’s attachment styles as adults derive in large part from how their parents cared for them  Securely attached lovers: rarely jealous or worried about being abandoned – more compassionate & helpful than insecure & quicker to understand & forgive their partners o Warm, close relationships with their parents  Anxious lovers: always agitated about their relationships; they ant to be close but they worry their partners will leave them o Describe parents ambivalently (both kind and harsh)  Avoidant lovers: distrust & avoid intimate relationships o Describe parents in almost all negative terms; had cold, rejecting parents, extended periods of separation from their mothers, or childhood environments that prevented them from forging close ties with others o Resistant to changed o Common for people who display pathological behaviours  In an observational study of young adults in family interactions – their ratings of their families’ warmth and sensitivity were positively related to how they behaved with their romantic partners and to their own degree of attachment security Gender, Culture & Love Men & women are pretty equal:  Love the same in terms of love at first sight, passionate love, companionate love  Equally likely to suffer unrequited love Different in HOW they express love:  Males learn that revelations of emotion can be construed as evidence of vulnerability & weakness considered unmasculine  Males express emotions in actions (e.g. doing things for their partner, providing for their family, sharing the same activity); women in words  Many women define intimacy as shared revelations of feelings, but many men define it as just hanging out together For many years, men married for love (2/3s could not marry someone they didn't love) & women more for the lifestyle (only ¼ couldn’t) – more extrinsic reasons  Gender difference in romantic love faded & so did economic motivations to marry Motives for SEX  In most other species, sexual behaviour is genetically programmed, but for humans, “sex is not a natural act”: o Activities that one culture considers natural are often considered unnatural in another culture or period of time o People need to learn from experience what they’re supposed to do with their sexual desires & how they’re expected to behave o People’s motivations for sex are not always intrinsic The Biology of Desire Hormones and Sexual Response: Testosterone: an androgen (masculinizing hormone) that both sexes produce & promotes sexual desire  If given artificially to a group who complain of low libido – these efforts fail to produce expected results because… o Symptoms of androgen deficiency are also those of marital problems & depression o No consensus on how much is “not enough” sex or “not enough” testosterone o Hormones fluctuate o Side effects of androgen are unpleasant to harmful o Sexual experience is also affected by social experience and context Arousal & Orgasm Alfred Kinsey: Wrote pioneering book in male and female attraction  People believed that women were more interested in affection than sex, but his research proved that wrong  Males and females are alike in their basic anatomy & physiology (e.g. penis & clitoris develop from the same embryotic tissue)  Said women have a lesser capacity for sex because they masturbate less William Masters & Virginia Johnston: studied physiological changes during sexual arousal and orgasm  Male & female orgasms are remarkably similar & all orgasms are physiologically the same, regardless of the source of stimulation  Disagreed with Kinsley’s assertion that women have lesser capacity for sex – said instead that women’s capacity for sexual response “infinitely surpasses that of men” because women are able to have repeated orgasms until exhaustion  OVERSIMPLIFIED: research was limited by the selection of men/women who were easily orgasmic & did not research how people’s physiological responses might vary according to age, experience & culture  People vary in their propensity for sexual excitation and responsiveness, as well as their ability to inhibit and control that excitement Sex & The Sex Drive  Although women are as capable as men of sexual pleasure, men have a higher rat
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