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Chapter 9.docx

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Don Morgenson

Chapter 9 Thinking and Intelligence Concept A mental category that groups objects relations activities abstractions or qualities having common properties for example dogs is a simpler idea then golden retrievers and shitszu Basic Concepts Concepts that have a moderate number of instances and that are easier to acquire than those having few or many instances Book is more basic then both novel and printed matter Prototype An especially representative example of a concept Proposition A unit of meaning that is made up of concepts and expresses a single idea People must represent their relations their relations to one another using propositions linked together in complicated networks of knowledge beliefs and expectations Cognitive SchemasAn integrated mental network of knowledge beliefs and expectations concerning a particular topic or aspect of the world Mental images a mental representation that mirrors or resembles the thing it represents mental images occur in many and perhaps all sensory Subconscious processes Mental processes occurring outside of conscious awareness but accessible to consciousness when necessary Subconscious processes make multitasking easier and possible Nonconscious Processes Mental processes occurring outside of and not available to conscious awareness Implicit Learning learning that occurs when the person is not really sure how he or she just did something and cannot explain to others what they have learned Reasoning is purposeful mental activity that involves operating on information in order to reach conclusionsRequires us to draw specific inferences from observations facts or assumptions Formal reasoning problems the information needed to specified clearly and there is only one possible correct answer Algorithm A problemsolving strategy guaranteed to produce a solution even if the user does not understand how it works long division you do a series of operations that you learned in elementary school Deductive reasoning A form of reasoning in which a conclusion follows necessarily from
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