Psychology 102 Review.docx

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Sofy Carayannopoulos

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Psychology 102 Review Chapter 7 Learning and conditioningLearning approaches useful for behavior change considers reinforces and punishers foundation of behaviorismClassical conditioningprocedure of NS becomes CS known as Pavlovian or respondent conditioningRussian physiologist Ivan Pavlovdog salivationCondition reflex cz dependes on environmental conditions 1 Unconditioned stimulus US food in mouth Unconditioned response UR salivation2 USneutral stimulusConditioned stimulusconditioned responseCR Principles of classical conditioning 1 ExtinctionCS happen repeatedly without US CR2 Spontaneous recovery 3 higherorder conditioning neural stimulus CS CSprejudices 4 stimulus generalization and discriminationsimilar stimulus can result in similar responsediscrimination CCwhat is actually learned in classical conditioning 1 most effective when the stimulus to be conditioned precedes comes before the unconditioned stimulus Proved by Robert Recorla 2 The conditioned stimulus becomes a signal for the unconditioned stimulus 3 To become a CS a neutral stimulus must reliably signal or predict the USclassical conditioning in real lifeJohn B WastonRayner 1 Learning to like 2 Learning to fearAlbert 11months old Peter counterconditioning systematic desensitization3 Accounting for taste 4 Reacting to medical treatmentOperant conditioningInstrumental Learningbehavior depends thon its consequenceG Stanley Hall 20 centurycomplex and not reflexive th The birth of radical behaviorism 20 century Edward Thorndikecat experience behavior is controlled by its consequencesBF Skinner external causes outside not insideThe consequences of behavior Skinner 2 types influences 1 Reinforcement strengthens the response or makes it more likely to recur 2 Punishment weakens the response 1 Primary and secondary rein forcers and punishers 2 Primary reinforcerspunishers biological needs water air etc 3 Secondary reinforcers and punishersmoney grades finesalso called conditioned reinforcers and punishers 4 givetakePositive reinforcement negative5 Punishment positive negativePrinciple of operant conditioningSkinner box 1 Extinction2 Stimulus generalization and discrimination 3 Learning on schedule 1 Continuous reinforcement respons each time occurs most rapid learning 2 Intermittent schedule only some responses 4 shapingstart reinforcing a tendency in right directionsuccessive approximation 5 biological limits on learning operant conditioning in real life
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