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PS102 Chapter 7.docx

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Kathy Foxall

C HAPTER 7: HUMAN M EMORY I. Introduction 1. Encoding – forming a memory code a. Remembering how it looks, how it sounds, what it means b. Requires attention 2. Storage – maintaining encoded information in memory over time 3. Retrieval – recovering information from memory stores II. Encoding: Getting Information Into Memory A. The Role Of Attention 1. Attention – focusing awareness on a narrowed range of events; critical to everyday functioning a. Afilter that screens out potential stimuli while allowing a selected few to pass through into conscious awareness b. Divided attention can have a negative impact on the performance of tasks c. Critical to encoding memories 2. Effortful Processing – learning or storing (encoding) that requires attention and effort a. Picking up info because you intentionally attempting to do so B. Levels Of Processing 1. Different rates of forgetting occur because some methods of encoding create a more durable memory codes than others 2. Processing verbal information involves: a. Encoding – a relatively shadow processing that emphasizes the physical structure of the stimulus b. Phonemic Encoding – emphasizes what a word sounds like c. Semantic Encoding – emphasizes the meaning of verbal input; thinking about the objects and actions the words represent d. Levels of processing theory – deeper levels or processing result in longer lasting memory codes C. Enriching Encoding 1. Elaboration a. Linking a stimulus to other information at the time of encoding b. Additional association that are created by elaboration usually help people to remember information 2. Visual Imagery a. Imagery – the creation of visual images to represent the words to be remembered b. Easier to form images of concrete objects (juggler) than of abstract concept (truth) c. Dual-coding theory – memory is enhanced by forming semantic and visual codes 3. Self-Referent Encoding a. Involves deciding how or whether information is personally relevant b. We are more likely to remember information when it is relevant to ourselves 1/7 C HAPTER 7: HUMAN M EMORY III. Storage: Maintaining Information In Memory A. Sensory Memory 1. Preserves information in its original sensory form for a brief time, usually only a fraction of a section a. Allows the sensation of a visual pattern, sound or touch to linger for a brief moment after the sensory stimulation is over B. Short-Term Memory 1. (STM) – a limited-capacity store that can maintain unrehearsed information for up to about 20 seconds 2. Rehearsal – the process of repetitively verbalizing or thinking about the information a. Maintenance rehearsal – maintaining information in consciousness (i.e. focusing on the meaning of words you are trying to remember) b. Elaborative rehearsal – increasing the probability of remembering the information in the future C. Durability Of Storage 1. Loss of information from short-term memory was due purely to time-related decay of memory traces and inference of competing material D. Capacity Of Storage 1. Limited capacity of STM constrains people’s abilities to perform tasks in which then need to mentally juggle various pieces of information 2. STM can be increased by combining stimuli into larger, high order units, called chunks 3. Chunk – a group of familiar stimuli stored as a single unit E. Short-Term MemoryAs “Working Memory” 1. Working Memory – a limited capacity storage system that temporarily maintains and stores information by providing an interface between perception, memory and action 2. Memory is not limited to phonemic encoding and that decay is not the only process responsible for loss of information from the STM 3. Bradley’s Model: a. Phonological Loop – the part of working memory that deals with spoken and written material (i.e. remembering a phone number) b. Visuospatial Sketchpad – Stores and processes information in a visual or form c. Central Executive – controls the deployment of attention, switching focus if attention and dividing attention d. Episodic Buffer – acts as a 'backup' store which communicates with both long term memory and the components of working memory 4. Working Memory Capacity (WMC) – one’s ability to hold and manipulate information in conscious attention a. Can be temporarily reduced by situational factors (worry and pressure) b. Can be positively correlated with high level cognitive abilities (reading, comprehension, intelligence) c. 2/7 C HAPTER 7: HUMAN M EMORY F. Long-Term Memory 1. (LTM) – an unlimited capacity store that can hold information over lengthy periods of time a. Can story information indefinitely b. Flashbulb memories – unusually vivid and detailed recollections of momentous events; i.become less detailed and complete with time and are often inaccurate ii.represent an instance of permanent storage G. How Is Knowledge Represented and Organized In Memory 1. Clustering and Conceptual Hierarchies a. Clustering – the tendency to remember similar or related items in groups b. Conceptual Hierarchy – a multilevel classification system based on common properties among items c. ASchema – an organized cluster of knowledge about a particular object or event abstracted from previous experience with the object or event i.People are more likely to remember things that are consistent with their schemas than things that are not ii.People sometimes exhibit better recall of things that violate their schema-based expectations iii.Relational Schemas – represent regularities in interpersonal experiences 2. Semantic Networks a. Consists of nodes representing concepts, joined together by pathways that link related concepts b. SpreadingActivation – a model for the association of ideas and memories that is based on activating one memory will trigger associated items 3. Connectionist Networks and Parallel Distributed Processing a. (PDP) models – assume that cognitive processes depend on patterns of activation in highly interconnected computational networks that resemble neutral networks i. Consists of a large network of interconnected computing units, or nodes, that operate like neurons ii. State that specific memories correspond to particular patterns of activation in the networks iii. Information lies in the strength of the connections IV. Retrieval: Getting Information Out Of Memory A. Using Cues ToAid Retrieval 1. Tip of the tongue phenomenon – the temporary inability to remember something you know, accompanied by a feeling that it’s just out of reach; a common experience that is typically triggered by a name one can’t quite recall 2. Memories can be jogged with retrieval cues – stimuli that help gain access to memories 3/7 C HAPTER 7: HUMAN M EMORY B. Reinstating The Context OfAn Event 1. Encoding Specificity Principle – your memory for information would be better when the conditions during encoding and retrieval were similar 2. Context cues – facilitate the retrieval of information C. Reconstructing Memories And The Misinformation Effect 1. Memories are sketchy reconstructions of the past that may be distorted and may include details that did not actually occur 2. Misinformation effect – occurs when participants’recall of an event they witnessed is alter by introducing misleading post-event information a. Stage 1: subjects view an event b. Stage 2: they are exposed to information about this event, of which some is misleading c. Stage 3: their recall of the original event is tested to see if the most-event misinformation altered their memory of the original event 3. The simple act of retelling a story can introduce inaccuracies into memory D. Source Monitoring And Reality Monitoring 1. Reality monitoring – the process of deciding whether memories are based on external sources (one’s perc
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