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PS102 Exam Review.docx

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Paul Mallet

PS 102 Exam ReviewChapter 3 Genes Evolution and EnvironmentEvolutionary psychology is a field of psychology emphasizing evolutionary mechanisms that may help explain human similarities in cognition development emotion social practices and other areas of behaviourBehavioural genetics is an interdisciplinary field of study concerned with the genetic bases of individual differences in behaviour and personalityGenes are functional units of heredity they are composed of DNA and specify the structure of proteinsChromosomes are within every cell they are rodshaped structures that carry the genes DNA deoxyribonucleic acid is the chromosomal molecule that transfers genetic characteristics They are inside the chromosomes Genome is a full set of genes in each cell of an organism Genetic marker is a segment of DNA that varies among individualsEvolution is a change in gene occurrences within a population over many generations Genetically influenced characteristics of a popular may changeMutation occurs if during the division of cells that produce sperm and eggs an error occurs in the copying of the original DNA sequence genes can spontaneously change or undergo mutation Natural selection is the evolutionary process in which individuals with genetically influenced traits that are adaptive in a particular environment tend to survive and reproduce in greater numbers than other individuals making their trades more commonMental modules is the collection of specialized and independent sections of the brain developed to handle specific survival problems such as the need to locate foodLanguage is a system the combines meaningless elements such as sounds or gestures to form structured expressions that have meaningLanguage acquisition device is a natural mental module that allows young children to develop language if they are exposed to enough sampling of conversationOverregularizations are nonrandom errors in grammar that show that the child has grasped a grammatical rule Sociobiology is an interdisciplinary field that emphasizes evolutionary explanations of social behaviour in animals including human beings Social Darwinism is the idea that the wealthy and successful are more reproductively fit than other peopleHeritability is a statistical estimate of the proportion of the total difference in some trait that is due to genetic differences among individuals with a groupIdentical monozygotic twins are twins that develop when a fertilized egg divides into two parts that develop into separate embryosFraternal dizygotic twins are twins that develop from two separate eggs fertilized by different sperm they are no more alike genetically than any other pair of siblingsIntelligence quotient IQ is a measure of intelligence originally calculated by dividing a persons mental age by his or her chronological age and by multiplying the result by 100 it is now copied from norms provided for standardized intelligence testsEpigenetics is the study of changes in gene expression due to mechanisms other than structural changes in DNAPS 102 Exam ReviewChapter 7 Learning and Conditioning Learning is a relatively permanent change in behaviour or behaviour potential due to experienceBehaviourism is an approach to psychology that emphasizes the study of observable behaviour and the role of the environment as a determinant of behaviourConditioning is a basic kind of learning that involves association between environmental stimuli and the organisms responsesUnconditioned stimulus US is a stimulus that causes a reflexive response in the absence of learning Unconditioned response UR is a reflexive response caused by a stimulus in the absence of learningConditioned stimulus CS is an initially neutral stimulus that comes to cause a conditioned response after being associated with an unconditioned stimulus Conditioned response CR is a response that is cause by a conditioned stimulus it occurs after the conditioned stimulus is associated with an unconditioned stimulus Classical conditioning is the process by which a previously neutral stimulus gains the ability to cause a response through association with a stimulus that already causes a similar or related response It is also called Pavlovian or respondent conditioning Extinction in classical conditioning is the weakening and eventual disappearance of a learned response in classical conditioning it occurs when the conditioned stimulus is no longer paired with the unconditioned stimulus for example bellfoodsalvation removing the food but ringing the bell repeatedly causes the dog to not salivate anymoreSpontaneous recovery is the reappearance of a learned response after its apparent extinctionHigherorder conditioning is a procedure in which a neutral stimulus becomes conditioned stimulus through association with an already established conditioned stimulus for example bright lightfoodsalvation flashing the light every time food is given will cause the dog to salivate at the lightStimulus generalization in classical conditioning is the tendency to respond to a stimulus that resembles one involved in the original conditioning in classical conditioning it occurs when a stimulus that resembles the CS causes the CR for example dog scared of snake scared of rope Stimulus discrimination in classical conditioning is the tendency to respond differently to two or more similar stimuli in classical conditioning it occurs when a stimulus similar to the CS fails to react to the CR for example salivating to the c key on the piano but not on the guitar Counterconditioning in classical conditioning is the process of pairing a conditioned stimulus with a stimulus that causes a response that is incompatible with an unwanted conditioned response for example boy is scared of a bunny so they pair the bunny with the cookies and milk and he slowly becomes comfortable around the bunnyOperant conditioning is the process by which a response becomes more likely to occur or less so depending on its consequences Reinforcement is the process by which a stimulus or event strengthens or increases the probability of the response that it follows for example when your dog begs for food at the table and you supply it with food it will continue to beg
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