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Pysch ch 4-6 midterm.docx

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Wilfrid Laurier University
Joanne Lee

thNov 7Pysch Ch4Place in space rely on 3 cues to determine which way is up visual gravity and body directionSensation stimulation of sense organs Involves absorption of energy such as light or sound waves by sensory organs such as ears eyes Perception selection organization and interpretation of sensory inputPsychophysics study of how physical stimuli are translated into psychological experienceThreshold is a dividing point between energy levels that do and dont have detectable effectAbsolute Threshold minimum amount of stimulation an organism can detectStimulus intensity detected 50 percent of the timeJust Notable difference JNDsmallest difference in the amount of stimulation that a specific sense can detect FetchnerWebers Law states that the size of a just noticeable difference is a constant proportion of the size of the initial stimulation weber fractionFetchners law states the magnitude of a sensory experience is proportional to the number of JNDs that the stimulus causing the experience above the absolute thresholdConstant increments in the stimulus intensity produce smaller and smaller increases in the perceived magnitude of sensation 3 bulbsPerceptions cant be measured on absolute scalesSingle detection Theory detection of stimuli involves decision processes as well as sensory processes which are both influenced by a variety of factors besides stimulus intensity Radar deciding if its airplane or your imagining thingsReplaces Fetchners threshold with the concept of detectabilitySubliminal Perception registry of sensory input without conscious awarenessHidden messages of eat popcorn in film Popcorn sales increases by 58 Perception without awareness can take placeSensory Adaptation gradual decline in sensitivity due to prolonged stimulationVisual SystemLight is a form of electromagnetic radiation that travels as a waveAmplitude heightAffects mainly perception of brightnessWavelength distance between peaksAffects mainly perception of colourPurity how varied the mix is Influences perception of saturation and richness of coloursThe EyeChannel light to the neural tissue that receives it retinaLight enters eye through a transparent window called the cornea the cornea and the crystalline lens located behind it form an upside down imageLens transparent eye structure that focuses light rays falling on the retinaPupil opening in the centre of the iris that helps regulate the amount of light passing into the rear chambers of the eyeWhen pupil dilates opens it lets more light in but the image is less sharp In bright light pupils constrict to take advantage of the sharpened image Retina neural tissue lining the inside back of the surface of the eye absorbs light processes images and sends visual information to the brainOptic Disk hole in the retina where the optic nerves fibres exit the eyeCannot see part of image that falls on it known as the blind spotRetina contains 2 types of receptors rods and consCons daylight vision and colour vision 564 millionoProvide better visual acuity sharpness and detailoConcentrated most heavily in the centre of the retinaoFovea tiny spot in centre of retina contains only coneso3 types of cones each type being most sensitive to different wavelengthsRodsnight vision and peripheral vision 100125 million rodsoAverted vision in dark look slightly above object which moves to rod dominated areaNearsightedness close objects seen clearly but distant objects are blurryFarsightedness distant objects are seen clearly but close objects appear blurrySaccades eye movements
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