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Cognitive Psych Midterm 2 Review

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Wilfrid Laurier University
Todd Ferretti

Cognitive Psych September 13, 2010 • Cognitive Psychology o Science of mental life, both in phenomena and their condition • Our prof—The scientific study of skills and knowledge—how they are acquired, stored, transformed, and used • Representation/structures o The knowledge we possess, information we have in memory  Static structure—never changing  Dynamic structure—always changing o Different memory systems • Processes o Operations performed on internal or external stimuli  Creating new memories  Transforming information  Updating and reinterpreting o Donders  Had ppl to react as quickly as possible when they were touched (simple reaction time)  Measure the response time  Second task, choice reaction • Only respond if right foot is touched • Have to make a decision • Measure time for choice, then simple • Choice is longer o Structuralism  Wundt  Simple vs higher psychical processes  Introspection • Isolate, describe the basic building blocks of cognition • Giving different stimuli, tell what they were thinking about how they felt • Not very informative as it is very subjective • Not all our processes are conscious • Implicit- conscious, explicit-unconscious  Study conscious mental events  Minimal interpretation  Problems • Assumes all processes/product of cognition available to consciousness • No objective testability o Ebbinghaus  Learning curve  Forgetting over time  Memorize nonsense • No prior learning can influence the memory, no associations • How many trials it took measured • Ability to recall decline overtime • Most forgetting in the first hour • How long it takes to relearn the information o Relearn in fewer trials than original o Functionalism  William James  Primary vs secondary memory  Short term and long term/ primary and secondary  Dark Attic full of stuff that you aren’t currently thinking about, once light is shone on it, object becomes part of primary memory  Best measure of short term memory • 7 +/- 2 is not the best • Actually smaller o Kohler  Insight in problem solving  Sum is greater than the individual parts  Study whole not different elements  Give apes a problem, hang bananas  Too high for them to get to, over time they used materials in the cage to complete the task  Suddenly get up and do something that solves the problem= insight o Behaviourism  Watson and Skinner  Only stimuli and responses matter o Bartlett  Emphasis on memory as reconstructive process  When you encode you construct an interpretation of an event  Remember= reconstructing the event • Therefore things will change, forget something, change them o Duncker  Functional fixedness • View an object not part of the problem • Cant think of using it another way • Nailing candle to the wall problem attaching two strings etc o Modern influences, how behaviourism fell  Chomsky • linguistics • Distinction between competence and performance • Children understand more than they can produce/ talk  Emergence of information science • Measure info • Info needs to be better than the static  Computers • Allows you to put info in, store, retrieve , and transform • Metaphor for human information processing o Birth of Cognitive Psychology  Needed method to study unobservable cognitive processes with objectivity of behaviourism  Cant replicate experiments, because of introspection  To do this: Transcendental method by Immanuel Kant • How could the observed state of affairs have come about o Work backwards from effects o Causes? o Explanation o Conclusions based on unobservable events o Cognitive Revolution  Mid 1960’s o Themes  Systems/structural • Structuralist • Different memory systems • Different system can be distinguished on basis of their different characteristics and cortical locations  Functionalist • Different processes involved with encoding and retrieval of information • Memory processes assumed to be similar to perceptual process • Remembering is an active constructive process September 15, 2010 • Visual (Iconic Sensory Memory) o Sensory memory for visual system o Echoic  Auditory system o Segner first documented in 1740  Spin wheel, coal looks like a continuous circle when spinning  Memory that lasts 10 of a second  Duration of iconic memory is 100ms o Saccade  The quick movement of the eyes from one location to another  Vary in duration 50-100msec, 3-4 times/ second  While moving eyes you are functionally blind  Fixation is when we gain info o Fixation  The brief period when the eyes stop moving and the visual scene is processed  250msec or less o Span of Apprehension: Baxt 1871, educational psych  How many letters can you read in one fixation ?  Wedge cut out of a wheel, letters underneath so only one letter is shown at any given moment, Subjects usually get 4-5 o Characteristics of Iconic Memory: George Sperling • Used baxt results as a starting point • Once again got 4-5 • People know there are more letters but “forget” the rest • What causes the limitation? • Physical signals—>sensory transduction—>visual sensory memory pattern recognition short term memory report OR long term memory—> back to pattern recognition • Short term memory is about 4-5!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! NOT 7. Because there is no rehearsal • Then tried 500 ms instead of 50ms (whole report) o Therefore more letter?? NO, Exact same results o pattern recognition is not too slow its short term memory, what ever the capacity is  Whole Report Procedure • Sperling present letter display for 500ms o More time for pattern recognition • Got same results 4-5 items • Pattern recognition process not too slow • Whole report is limited by capacity of STM  Capacity of Iconic Memory • Partial report procedure to overcome limitations of immediate memory • Fixation point (500ms)Letter Array (50ms) Partial Report cue (auditory)report (blank) • Can only use the cue if they remember anything STM • Results are far better for partial than whole • Partial grows with the # of letters, while whole stays constant at 4-5 • Capacity is fairly large, larger than the capacity of short term memory  What info is in iconic memory • Vary the cue o Letters and digits?  No  Interpretation is different, semantic difference, meaning • Semantic is not effective, but physical is • Iconic only holds physical property, no meaning!!!! • Precatergorical o Meaning of stimuli has not yet been analyzed, only physical information is represented  Duration of Icon Mem • Partial report procedure again o Delay 0-1 sec before the cue  Longer cue= longer to remember the info  Cue becomes useless, loss of info • As you delay the cue, partial report eventually goes down to the whole report level (4-5) • 100- 300ms is the range of iconic memory (less than a second) • Eriksen and Collins new way o Bunch of dots, asked to report the letters o Then a delay, and another display of dots o What letters? o Simultaneous display shows letters (VTL) o Never presented at the same time o Only way they can overlap is in iconic memory o FAVOURTIE EXPERIMENT VVI VVI!!!!!!! • Loss of info o Pattern masking  Visual noise can interfere with reading letters  Forward masking • Masking appears shortly before letters  Backward masking • Making appears shortly after letters o Noise makes the letters disappear o If too soon or too late there will be little interference • Decay o Losing info over time • Interference o Masking (integration of other information) • Structualist/ System view o Sensory memories are physical memory systems that hold information o 4 characteristics of Iconic Memory o Capacity  Greater than ST; potentially very large (dots) o Content  Only physical features (precategorical) o Duration  Less than 1 sec (approx 250-300 ms) o Forgetting  Information lost due to decay or interference • Functionalist o Sensory memories are not static memory systems that hold the info briefly before it decays o Reflection of ongoing neural processing which begin with the onset of stimulation and continue for a given duration o Not separate o Series of ongoing process transforming sensory signal • Echoic Memory o Auditory equivalent of iconic memory o Allows us to piece together continuous speech o Smaller capacity, but longer duration o 1-4 secs o Auditory info comes over time, visual is all at once o Would not be able to understand speech without echoic Cognitive Psych September 20, 2010 Pattern Recognition • Template Matching o Sperling’s Model (again) o Make connection between pattern in life and in memory o We have a template in our mind for something as simple as a potato  All look different but we still recognize  Memorize different features • Feature Analysis: Feature Detectors Theory o Theory of pattern recognition in which patterns are analyzed in terms of their component parts or features o Assumes that the visual system can detect or identify different features o Confusion  Confuse letters with similar features o Visual search study  Search for an object surrounded by distracters, may be there or not, measure response time  Pop outs, others are called distracters  If distrators share the features of what you are searching for (no pop out) much harder to find o Feature Search  Easy search task, one feature, popout o Conjunctive Search  Difficult, Search for a combination of two features • Bottom up o Raw visual input, basic amount of info, o Builds interpretation from the bottom up until we get object recognition o Visual Input Brightness DiscriminationFigure/Ground DiscriminationFeature analysis  object recognition o if we just used this method we would be very slow at recognition • Top down/ conceptual o all other experiences and prior knowledge o Cost = miss easy things such as 2 the’s in a sentence • Reading is not automatic, only when we expect to see words • Biederman, Glass Stacy o easier to find objects in normal scene than jumbled  context can guide search  top down processing o bottom up to search jumbled scene o All the same visual info but different order o Using the context, where to search for the toaster/ object • Word Superiority Effect o Easier with word, than with letter o Context of word makes letter more recognizable • Bottom up o Processing begins with the sensory input and ends with its representation o Outcome of a lower step is never affected by a higher step in the process • Top down o Output of a lower step is influenced by a higher step in the process • Interactive o Both top down and bottom up are ongoing, assist eachother September 22, 2010 • Elements of Speech o Phone  Smallest unit, Approx 200  Culture free o Phoneme  Most basic unit of sound, Approx 40 in English o Morpheme  Smallest meaningful units of words • Articulatory Features o can distinguish phonemes based on how they are produced by our vocal apparatus o Each lang only uses a subset of the 200 phones o Place of articulation: Could be at lips or back of mouth etc o Manner of articulation  How airflow is disrupted • Acoustic Features o Can also distinguish phonemes based on their acoustic or physical signature o Relationship with articulatory features  Children learn based on the feedback they get • Learn the relationship between production and perception  As we grow up vocal track changes (bigger), must modify art features to generate proper language  Adults adjust to new articulatory- acoustic relationships if they lose teeth, dentures, or other dental appliances  To adjust to new articulatory- acoustic relationships, speakers must modify their previously learned articulation in order to produce perceptually adequate speech sounds  We use feedback to monitor and alter speech production o Jones  Provided evidence the hearing one’s speech is vital for lang learning and maintenance of accurate articulation  Manipulated acoustic feedback on control of voice fundamental frequency  Changed how people pronounced words by giving false feedback  We sound different to ourselves o McGurk effect  Perceptual phenomenon which demonstrates an interaction between hearing and vision in speech perception  Mulimodal, info from more than one sensory modality  Video of one phoneme production is dubbed onto recording of a different spoken phoneme  Perceived phoneme is often between the 2  Not just based on the sounds you hear  Don’t hear what they say or mouth, a phoneme in between • Top Down Process o Restoration  Took out a phoneme in a sentence and placed a cough instead,  Figure out what the whole word is  Coarticulation • Each phoneme we produce is not alone • Overlapping word when we speak • The sound a letter makes is changed by the vowles  Importance of Context • When you don’t have context you may not be able to understand what is being said • Mistaken lyrics, not sure wtf they are saying • Bottom up o Categorical perception  Parallel transmisiom  Perfect ba and perfect pa, sounds between turn into each other  Because its not gradual, close to ba say ba o We have detectors that pick up what speech sound the sound is closet to nd o 2 experiment participant listens to a ba sound before  More identification of pa than ba  Lost strength in ba detector, must be perfect ba to indentify as ba now September 27, 2010 Attention I: Selection • Types of Attention o Detection  Alerting • Alert us to unexpected stimulus • Monitor something to detect change o Concentration  Focused  Ability to choose to focus on one stimulus, exclude all others; involves selection  Divided • Ability to focus on two or more stimuli/dimensions at the same time; usually, these is some loss in attention to one or both • Cost : wont do either task as well • Shadowing o Two different messages, in each ear o Asked to focus on one ear, repeat then remember what happened in the other ear o Capacity of meaning limited o Non shadow: Remember the physical characteristics but not meaning  Loudness, male female etc o Closeness effect volume • Cherry o What could listeners remember about the unattended message  Physical characteristics  NOT meaning of unattended message, • Don Broadbent o Input physical Features (sensory memory) Filter Pattern recognition Short Term memory o Filter model  Empty spot FILTER  Only remember the physical properties  Only selected information get analysed for meaning o Problems for Early Selection Model  Ppl notice their name when not paying attention  Shows there is some processing of unattended information  35% of ppl • Anne Treisman o Two messages, had to shadow one of them o Some processing of meaning on unattended channel o High frequency words vs low o Takes little info to make you aware that someone has said your own name  Used to reacting to it • Corteen o In study phase, subjects heard list of words o Words from a particular category were paired with mild shock o In test phase, study words were presented on unattended channel in dichotic listening task o Words from category paired with shock at study produced galvanic skin response when presented on unattended channel o Even words from shock category NOT present at study produced galvanic response o Generalization of conditioned response to un presented words from same category indicates their meaning was processed o Generalized connection, city names not just the cities that were originally listed o VVI favourite experiment test??? • Late Selection o Analysed, select info, that goes to further processing o Selection after o Unattended info not processes as well • Early o Filter before pattern recognition o Selection before Sept 29, 2010 Attention II: Capacity Theory • Early vs late filter theories of attention o Problem : evidence for both o Capacity theory provides a different view • Attention as allocation of limited processing resources o Arousal  Reduction in attention span  Best performance involves moderate arousal/ motivation optimal level  Eye witness testimony • Bank robber put red star on forehead o Capacity Theory of Attention  We can process inputs in parallel  Dual Task Procedure • How well ppl perform more than one task at once • Given primary and secondary task • As long as demand doesn’t exceed capacity, will do tasks as well as if they were on their own, no interference • If demands increased on primary task, secondary task will suffer, I interference o Michael Posner  VVI  Posner and Boies Procdure, dual task  Looking at comp screen, see warning symbol, primary task about to start  Primary Visual letter matching task, single letter presented, delay, second letter presented, may or may not be the same  Decide is the 2 the same as the 1 letter, response  Secondary task same basic as 1 st  At some point duing primary task, single sound presented, must press button  Participant has been doing trials, not just one, seen many letters so it is harder to remember the letter than if there was just one trial  7 maximum interference , hardest part of the task  Primary is interfering with the secondary o Multi Mode Theory of Attention  Early selection requires less resources; do not have to allocate capacity to unattended information  Late selection (attending to more than one task) requires more resources  We can control whether we use early or late selection  Easier when physical difference between voices (early selection)  Task 1 • Shadow one of two sounds  Task 2 • Respond to light signal  Two lists different physically (male and female speakers) facilitation early selection  Or two lists read by same speaker and differed only in meaning (requiring late selection) o Attention is flexible and need more than one mode of attention to deal with different tasks  Focus attention  Divided attention o Two types of interference  Specific • Interference occurs because the same mechanism or process is needed for both tasks • Must select which task to perform • Cant make two responses at the same time  Non specific • Can do two things at the same time • Interference occurs because two tasks together
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