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Department
Psychology
Course
PS260
Professor
Todd Ferretti
Semester
Fall

Description
Cognitive Psych September 13, 2010 • Our prof—The scientific study of skills and knowledge—how they are acquired, stored, transformed, and used • Representation/structures o The knowledge we possess, information we have in memory  Static structure—never changing  Dynamic structure—always changing o Different memory systems • Processes o Operations performed on internal or external stimuli  Creating new memories  Transforming information  Updating and reinterpreting • 6 different major topics o Top 3 lower/basic o Bottom 3 higher order of processing • History o Apollonia  How we use different sense, how are they integrated/ got that way  Cognition is carried through the air o Plato  What are objects of mind  How ins info rep in our mind  Universals  Particulars  Wax tablet • First model of memory with remember and forgetting  Assumes memory impression never changes  Static view of memory, but they are not  Memory changes  Interference o Aristotle  Challenged plato on universal/ part  They are part of one another  Cannot separate the information, as they are the same  How is info represented, semantic memory  Doctrine of Association • Elements/ single ideas • Association and links between them • Building blocks of memory  Law of Association • How things become associated • Contiguity: same time or space • Similarity: alike conceptually • Contrast: opposites o Donders  Had ppl to react as quickly as possible when they were touched (simple reaction time)  Measure the response time  Second task, choice reaction • Only respond if right foot is touched • Have to make a decision • Measure time for choice, then simple • Choice is longer • Measure decision time o Structuralism  Wundt  Beginning of the experimental study of psych  Simple vs higher psychical processes  Introspection • Isolate, describe the basic building blocks of cognition • Giving different stimuli, tell what they were thinking about how they felt • Not very informative as it is very subjective • Not all our processes are conscious • Implicit- conscious, explicit-unconscious  Study conscious mental events, Minimal interpretation  Problems • Assumes all processes/product of cognition available to consciousness • No objective testability o Ebbinghaus  Learning curve  Forgetting over time  “savings” measure  Memorize nonsense • Strings of letter that don’t form words • No prior learning can influence the memory, no associations • How many trials it took measured • Ability to recall decline overtime • Most forgetting in the first hour • How long it takes to relearn the information o Relearn in fewer trials than original o Functionalism  William James  Primary vs secondary memory  Short term and long term/ primary and secondary  Dark Attic full of stuff that you aren’t currently thinking about, once light is shone on it, object becomes part of primary memory  Best measure of short term memory • 7 +/- 2 is not the best • Actually smaller o Kohler  Insight in problem solving  Sum is greater than the individual parts  Give apes a problem, hang bananas  Too high for them to get to, over time they used materials in the cage to complete the task  Insight: Suddenly get up and do something that solves the problem o Behaviourism  Watson and Skinner  Reaction to introspection  Very objective- reaction to Wundt and James  Only stimuli and responses matter  Catalogue connections between stimuli and responses o Bartlett  Emphasis on memory as reconstructive process  Book Remembering  When you encode you construct an interpretation of an event  Remember= reconstructing the event • Therefore things will change, forget something, change them o Duncker  Functional fixedness • View an object not part of the problem • Cant think of using it another way o Birth of Cognitive Psychology  Needed method to study unobservable cognitive processes with objectivity of behaviourism  Cant replicate experiments, because of introspection  To do this: Transcendental method by Immanuel Kant • How could the observed state of affairs have come about o Work backwards from effects o Causes? o Explanation o Conclusions based on unobservable events o Cognitive Revolution  Mid 1960’s o Themes  Systems/structural • Different memory systems • Different system can be distinguished on basis of their different characteristics and cortical locations  Functionalist • Different processes involved with encoding and retrieval of information • Memory processes assumed to be similar to perceptual process • Remembering is an active constructive process September 15, 2010 • Visual (Iconic Sensory Memory) o Sensory memory for visual system o Echoic  Auditory system o Segner first documented in 1740  Wheel on an axel, put burning coal on wheel  Spin wheel, coal looks like a continuous circle when spinning  Duration of iconic memory is 100ms o Fixation  The brief period when the eyes stop moving and the visual scene is processed  250msec or less o Span of Apprehension  Baxt 1871,, edu psych  How much information can we glean form a single glance  How many letters can you read in one fixation?  Wedge cut out of a wheel, letters underneath so only one letter is shown at any given moment  Subjects usually get 4-5 o Characteristics of Iconic Memory  George Sperling • Used baxt results as a starting point, Once again got 4-5 • People know there are more letters but “forget” the rest • What causes the limitation? • Physical signals—>sensory transduction—>visual sensory memory pattern recognition short term memory report OR long term memory—> back to pattern recognition • Short term memory is about 4-5!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! NOT 7. Because there is no rehearsal • Then tried 500 ms instead of 50ms (whole report) o Therefore more letter?? o Exact same results o No pattern recognition is not too slow its short term memory, what ever the capacity is  Whole Report Procedure (WTF IS THIS??) • Sperling present letter display for 500ms o More time for pattern recognition • Got same results 4-5 items • Pattern recognition process not too slow • Whole report is limited by capacity of STM  Capacity of Iconic Memory • Partial report procedure to overcome limitations of immediate memory • Fixation point (500ms)Letter Array (50ms) Partial Report cue (auditory)report (blank) • Can only use the cue if they remember anything STM • No predictability • Results are far better than for partial than whole • Partial grows with the # of letters, while whole stays constant at 4-5 • Capacity is fairly large, larger than the capacity of short term memory  What info is in iconic memory • Vary the cue o Size, small and large letters o Report on or the other o Location and size are preserved in icon memory o Colour  yes o Letters and digits?  No  Interpretation is different, semantic difference, meaning  Pattern recognition skills • Semantic is not effective, but physical is • Iconic only holds physical property, no meaning!!!! • Precatergorical o Meaning of stimuli has not yet been analyzed, only physical information is represented  Duration of Icon Mem • Partial report procedure again o Delay 0-1 sec before the cue  Longer cue= longer to remember the info  Cue becomes useless, loss of info • As you delay the cue, partial report eventually goes down to the whole report level (4-5) • 100- 300ms is the range of iconic memory (less than a second) • Eriksen and Collins new way o Bunch of dots, asked to report the letters o Then a delay, and another display of dots o What letters? o Simultaneous display shows letters (VTL) o Never presented at the same time o Only way they can overlap is in iconic memory o FAVOURTIE EXPERIMENT VVI VVI!!!!!!! • Loss of info o Read letters on screen, then present “visual noise” o Pattern masking  Visual noise can interfere with reading letters  Forward masking • Masking appears shortly before letters  Backward masking • Making appears shortly after letters o Doesn’t matter if it comes before or after letters o Noise makes the letters disappear o Prof error, people could remember letters, he went too slow!!! o If too soon or too late there will be little interference • Decay o Losing info over time • Interference o Masking (integration of other information) • Structualist/ System view o Different systems vary ??? o Sensory memories are physical memory systems that hold information o 4 characteristics, o Capacity  Greater than ST; potentially very large (dots) o Content  Only physical features (precategorical) o Duration  Less than 1 sec (approx 250-300 ms) o Forgetting  Information lost due to decay or interference • Functionalist o Not different at all?? o Sensory memories are not static memory systems that hold the info briefly before it decays o Reflection of ongoing neural prcessing which begin with the onset of stimulation and continue for a given duration o Not separate o Series of ongoing process transforming sensory signal • Echoic Memory o Auditory equivalent of iconic memory o Allows us to piece together continuous speech o Smaller capacity, but longer duration o 1-4 secs o Auditory info comes over time, visual is all at once o Would not be able to understand speech without echoic • Continuous and stable view of the world Cognitive Psych September 20, 2010 Pattern Recognition • Template Matching o Sperling’s Model (again) o Make connection between pattern in life and in memory o Must normalize pattern – multiple templates o Identify all visible objects o We have a template in our mind for something as simple as a potato  All look different but we still recognize  Memorize different features • Feature Analysis: Feature Detectors Theory o Theory of pattern recognition in which patterns are analyzed in terms of their component parts or features o Assumes that the visual system can detect or identify different features o Confusion  Confuse letters with similar features  Everyone writes letter a bit different  More mistakes with items with similar features  More similarity more confusion o Visual search study  Neisser  Search for a letter or word in a list of letters or words  How long to recognize object, or if it is even present  The same is true for all objects  When you know the physical features of the object it is much easier if the word is generic  Pop outs, others are called distracters  If distrators share the features of what you are searching for (no pop out) much harder to find  Pre categorical features, don’t relate to meaning o Feature Search  Easy search task  Need only search for one feature  Target feature “pops out” from display o Conjunctive Search  Difficult  Search for a combination of two features  No pop out o Neurophysiological evidence  One sense not go through LGN: smell, go to ofactory ???  LGN like old school phone directory, switch board thing  Visual cortex ( not very important) • Simple • Complex • Hyper complex • Structural Theories o Recognition by components o Notice relationship between features o Same amount (%) of image, but in different areas, one easier to recognize than other o Info how features relate to eachother missing, makes hard to complete the image • Bottom up o Raw visual input, basic amount of info, o Builds interpretation from the bottom up until we get object recognition o Visual Input Brightness DiscriminationFigure/Ground DiscriminationFeature analysis  object recognition o if we just used this method we would be very slow at recognition • Top down/ conceptual o no one noticed the 2 “the”s in the sentence a bird in the the bush  someone learning to read would likely notice both o all other experiences and prior knowledge o speed up reading A LOT!!! o Cost = make mistake as above o That’s why its bad to proof read your own paper o Expectations cause us to miss things o Figure out what word is by looking at the context of the other letters o Take something ambiguous and use the context to interpret • Reading is not automatic, only when we expect to see words • Context Effects in Pattern Recognition o First identification of pattern relies almost exclusively on data driven processing; later identification relies on conceptually driven processing • Biederman, Glass Stacy o easier to find objects in normal scene than jumbled  context can guide search  top down processing o bottom up to search jumbled scene o All the same visual info but different order o Using the context, where to search for the toaster/ object • Word Superiority Effect o Present display, go off, then test display o Test has pattern mask o Get 2 options for what the letter is o Anorder one used just one letter o 3 condition, non word, (scrambled) o Easier with word, than with letter o Context of word makes letter more recognizable • Interactive Model of Reading o Using both top and bottom speeds up identification • Bottom up o Processing begins with the sensory input and ends with its representation o Outcome of a lower step is never affected by a higher step in the process • Top down o Output of a lower step is influenced by a higher step in the process • Interactive o Both top down and bottom up are ongoing, assist eachother • SAME FOR ALL LANGUAGES • When we read a word we don’t read every letter, what helps you read is that there are 2 levels of context, same 1 and last letter or word, and also context of the sentence, gives you a guide how to complete September 22, 2010 • Elements of Speech o Phone  Smallest unit  Approx 200  Culture free o Phoneme  Most basic unit of sound  Approx 40 in English o Morpheme  Basic unit of meaning in a language  Smallest meaningful units of words  Distinguish between content morphemes and function morphemes • Articulatory Features o can distinguish phonemes based on how they are produced by our vocal apparatus o Each lang only uses a subset of the 200 phones o English ignore the difference in sound between k and c? o Place of articulation: Could be at lips or back of mouth etc o Manner of articulation  How airflow is disrupted o Voicing  Whether the vocal cords begin to vibrate immediately with the obstruction of airflow, or whether the vibration is delayed until after the release of air o Vowels do no involve a disruption in airflow  Placement in the mouth (front, centre, or back  Tongue position in the mouth (high, middle, or low) • Acoustic Features o Can also distinguish phonemes based on their acoustic or physical signature o Speech spectographs show the composite frequencies over time of speech signals o Formant may increase or decrease until a steady state rd o 3 make spstch sondds sound human o Only 1 and 2 needed to understand language o Green lines are the black thick lines *** o Relationship with articulatory features  Children learn based on the feedback they get • Learn the relationship between production and perception  As we grow up vocal track changes (bigger), must modify art features to generate proper language  Adults adjust to new articulatory- acoustic relationships if they lose teeth, dentures, or other dental appliances  To adjust to new articulatory- acoustic relationships, speakers must modify their previously learned articulation in order to produce perceptually adequate speech sounds  We use feedback to monitor and alter speech production o Jones  Provided evidence the hearing one’s speech is vital for lang learning and maintenance of accurate articulation  Manipulated acoustic feedback on control of voice fundamental frequency  Listeners articulated vowels with normal feedback, or false feedback with frequency shifted up or down  Can get people to change how they pronounce words  Changed based on what they heard  We sound different to ourselves o McGurk effect  Perceptual phenomenon which demonstrates an interaction between hearing and vision in speech perception  Mulimodal, info from more than one sensory modality  Video of one phoneme production is dubbed onto recording of a different spoken phoneme  Perceived phoneme is often between the 2  Not just based on the sounds you hear  Don’t hear what they say or mouth, a phoneme in between • Top Down Process o Restoration  Took out a phoneme in a sentence and placed a cough instead, should appear before or after the actual word with the cough  Figure out what the whole word is  The gaps that you here in English are an illusion • Segmentation problem • Speech is always continuous • Hearing someone speak another language • We, knowing the language have to put spaces to understand  Coarticulation • Each phoneme we produce is not alone • Combining speech sounds • Saying more than one thing at a time • Overlapping • The sound a letter makes is changed by the vowles  Importance of Context • When you don’t have context you may not be able to understand what is being said • Mistaken lyrics, not sure wtf they are saying  • Bottom up o Categorical perception  Parallel transmisiom  Perfect ba and perfect pa, sounds between turn into each other  Present all different in random order and asked to indentify  Didn’t get what they expected to get 1 chart  People make and actual guess, ba, ba pa, ba etc  Because its not gradual, close to ba say ba  Get to middle and there is more confusion o We have detectors that pick up what speech sound the sound is closet to o 2 experiment participant listens to a ba sound before  More identification of pa than ba  Lost strength in ba detector, must be perfect ba to indentify as ba now • SPEECH PROCESSING SLIDE o Phoneme analysis September 27, 2010 Attention I: Selection • Types of Attention o Detection  Alerting • The ability to orient self to some critical or unexpected stimulus specialized detectors with high priorities • Alert us to unexpected stimulus • Doesn’t require our control • Then we decide if we will pay attention • Pre attentive • automatic  Vigilance  Ability to devote full attention to a single stimulus or stimulus complex; detection of change has high priority • Monitor something to detect change • Attentive process • Conscious • Control processes o Concentration  Focused  Ability to choose to focus on one stimulus, exclude all others; involves selection • Single stimulus • Exclude other • Increases ability to concentrate  Divided • Ability to focus on two or more stimuli/dimensions at the same time; usually, these is some loss in attention to one or both • Cost : wont do either task as well • 4 themes in study o Pre attentive vs attentive processes  Don’t require us vs under our control o Early vs late selection  When do we process o Serial vs parallel processing  One process at a time (very slow)  Vs Multiple at a time o Controled vs automatic processes • Shadowing o Two different messages, in each ear o Asked to focus on one ear, repeat then remember what happened in the other ear o Capacity of meaning limited o Non shadow: Remember the physical characteristics but not meaning  Loudness, male female etc o Closeness effect volume • Cherry o What could listeners remember about the unattended message  Physical characteristics  NOT • Meaning of unattended message • Word presented 35 times • Change of language • Speech played backwards • Selective Looking o Basketball passing and gorilla • Don Broadbent o Input physical Features (sensory memory) Filter Pattern recognition Short Term memory o Filter model  Empty spot FILTER  Only remember the physical properties  Only selected information get analysed for meaning  Unattended info does not get analysed so only aware of physical properties of unattended information o Problems for Early Selection Model  Moray  Ppl notice their name when not paying attention  Shows there is some processing of unattended information  35% of ppl • Anne Treisman o Modified early selection model o Two messages, had to shadow one of them o Listen to right ear, combined with left o Some processing of meaning on unattended channel o Not completely ignored, like turning the volume down but still goes through the filter slightly o High frequency words vs low o Different thereshold o Takes little info to make you aware that someone has said your own name  Used to reacting to it • Von wright o English speaking people o Unconsciously aware of what is on the unattended channel, meaning is processed o Expected that shock but not consciously • Corteen o In study phase, subjects heard list of words o Words from a particular category were paired with mild shock o In test phase, study words were presented on unattended channel in dichotic listening task o Words from category paired with shock at study produced galvanic skin response when presented on unattended channel o Even words from shock category NOT present at study produced galvanic response o Generalization of conditioned response to un presented words from same category indicates their meaning was processed o Generalized connection, city names not just the cities that were originally listed o VVI favourite experiment test??? • Eich o Told to follow story, but there will be something to distract in the other ear o 2 word in each pair sounds like another word fare—fair o Thist of the high frequency meaning word first, see instead of sea o 1 word biases the meaning to the low frequency meaning o Asked to recognize left ear words o Write down word, first meaning that comes to mind  Should write high frequency version  Words that had been presented were spelled l frequency • Problems for Attentuation Model o Some processing of information on unattended info that is not related to attended info o Implicit memory (memory without awareness) • Late Selection o Analysed, select info, that goes to further processing o Selection after o Unattended info not processes as well • Early o Filter before pattern recognition o Selection before • Filter Theories Sept 29, 2010 Attention II: Capacity Theory • Early vs late filter theories of attention o Problem : evidence for both o Capacity theory provides a different view • Attention as allocation of limited processing resources o Arousal  Increases in arousal lead to • Increased heart and breathing rate • Enlarged pupils • Changes in cortical brain wave patterns reduction in attention span  Suddenly frieghtened or alarmed by a danger  Reduction in attention span  Prepares us to meet a danger  Fight or flight response  Best performance involves moderate arousal/ motivation optimal level  Eye witness testimony • Bank robber put red star on forehead • Ppl focused on the star, unable to remember any other features o Yerkes Dodson Law  Performance is best when arousal is moderate o Capacity Theory of Attention  We can process inputs in parallel  We have limited-capacity pool of mental resources to analyze inputs  Limited capacity for mental resources  Use them to analyze info coming in  Can do 2 easy tasks at once  If one uses a lot of resources cant do another  Model • Bottom box- possible activities  Influence how we allocate resources • Demands, • Capacity • Prioritization  Dual Task Procedure • How well ppl perform more than one task at once • Given primary and secondary task • As long as demand doesn’t exceed capacity, will do tasks as well as if they were on their own, no interference • If demands increased on primary task, secondary task will suffer, I interference o Michael Posner  VVI  Posner and Boies Procdure, dual task  Looking at comp screen, see warning symbol, primary task about to start  Primary Visual letter matching task, single letter presented, delay, second letter presented, may or may not be the same nd st  Decide is the 2 the same as the 1 letter, response  Secondary task same basic as 1 st  At some point duing primary task, single sound presented  As soon as they hear the sound they press a button  Dependent is response time on secondary task  Point 1 primary task hasn’t started base line condition  All other points they are doing 2 tasks  Up until the presentation of the 2 letter they get faster than baseline, afterwards it shoots upwards and then goes down again  Points 2-4 increase in arousal is good  3-5 no interference of the primary task on the secondary  6 interference trying to remember the 1 letter  Participant has been doing trials, not just one, seen many letters so it is harder to remember the letter than if there was just one trial  7 maximum interference , hardest part of the task  Primary is interfering with the secondary  o Dual task: driving while talking on a cell phone  Speance and Read Study • Speaker at side like a passenger in the car • Easier to direct auditory & visual attention to same location than to different location  Strayer and Johnston • Listening to radio does not interfere with driving performance • Does not matter if it is hands free or hand held, same risk • Passenger is in the same situation as you, driving looking at the road as well • 4x the risk of having an accident= driving intoxicated • Conversations with passengers don’t cause interference with driving to the same extent as conversations on cell phones o Multi Mode Theory of Attention  Combines selection and capacity views of attention  Subject has control over early vs. late selection by manner in which mental resources are allocated  Early selection requires less resources; do not have to allocate capacity to unattended information  Late selection (attending to more than one task) requires more resources  We can control whether we use early or late selection  Depends on the task an resources  Easier when physical difference between voices early selection  Task 1 • Shadow one of two sounds  Task 2 • Respond to light signal  Two lists different physically (male and female speakers) facilitation early selection  Or two lists read by same speaker and differed only in meaning (requiring late selection)  Late selection requires more resources, worse performance on secondary task o Attention is flexible and need more than one mode of attention to deal with different tasks  Focus attention  Divided attention o Two types of interference  Specific • Interference occurs because the same mechanism or process is needed for both tasks • Must select which task to perform • Cant use dual task • Asking someone to hit a button on primary, and another on secondary • Cant make two responses at the same time  Non specific • Can do two things at the same time • Interference occurs because two tasks together require more resources than are available • Must allocate resources • Priming o Cognitive task: an experimentally constructed situation for studying a particular small set of cognitive skills or processes o Priming: a previous encounter with the identical stimulus or a related stimulus, the prime, makes subsequent processing of that stimulus, the target, easier. o Priming benefit automatic  Same letter= help o Priming benefit Expectations  When fulfilled = helpful o When expecting and misled= bad • Mere Familiarity effect o An example of long term priming o We tend to like things better if we have encountered them before, even if we do not remember the prior encounter • Posner and Snyder o Priming could be 80% helped which is called high validity priming or 80% misled which is called low validity Oct 4, 2010 Attention III: Automaticity • Mere familiarity effet o Long term priming o We tend to like things better if we have encountered them before even if we do not remember the prior encounter • Automaticity o Overcome limitations with practice they become automatic • The Stroop Effect o Demonstration  Name the colours on the next slides from top to bottom as quickly as you can  Xxx  MMM  Etc red with the colour red  Red written in the colour green  Colour does not match the word any more o Easier to read the words than naming colours for congruent o Neutral, congruent and incongruent o Naming colours less automatic o Interference o Reading is automatic !!!!! o Word name gets in the way of naming colour because reading words is faster than naming colours o Name of colour does not get in the way of reading words o Demonstration: Name the pic in the next slide  Images shown  Next slide a different word is on top of the image • Criteria for automaticity o Occurs without attention o
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