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PS260 lectures after midterm.doc

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Wilfrid Laurier University
Todd Ferretti

Oct 25, 2010 Long term memory: forgetting • Characteristics o Manner in which it is lost  Forget very rapidly at first  Then less and less  Younger memory traces are more vulnerable to forgetting o Rate of forgetting does not vary with degree of original learning  Stronger and weaker original memories forgotten at same rate  Learn repeated items to greater extent • Forgetting rate would be the exact same if it was presented once • Mechanism o Decay  Memories fade over time without use  Something has to happen over time to cause the decay • Absence of rehearsal, lose neural connection associated o Interference  Proactive • Earlier memories interfere with later • More lists someone has learned the more difficult it is to recall the last list  Retroactive • Later memories interfere with earlier memory o Tulving  Encoding specificity Hypothesis • Cannot retrieve some memories because do not have appropriate or specific cue  Results • Original learning o Very stagnant o Good cues for memory • Non cued o Gradual decline • Cued o Approx the same or bit better with right cue  • Decay vs interference  Interference has much greater effect  More games = more interference  Same as STM o Over load retrieval cues  Retrieval depends on cues  If too many events are associated with same cue, more difficult to find memory • Self Relevance Effect o More relevant the adj were rated the better they were recalled • Permastore o Well learned info can be retained over much of our life • Amnesia following trauma o Retro disrupts info from before the event o Antero disrupts info after the event • HM o Severe epilepsy o Remove parts of hippocampus  Greatly reduced seizures o Could not learn new info  Anterograde amnesia  Explicit memory effected • Implicit vs Explicit o Patients show normal implicit memory • Calperede o Pricked patients on hand when shaking upon meeting o Patient cant remember him the next day but not shake hand • Amnesia and Implicit Memory o Korsakoff’s have impaired explicit o Women with amnesia asked to dial phone number  Ends up calling mother o Procedural implicit memory still intact November 1, 2010 • Fred Bartlett o Memory should be studied in natural circumstances o No lists of words o People don’t describe the same thing the same way • Barletts Methods o Repeated reproduction  Ask the same person to describe the same event at different times o Serial reproduction  Many people to transmit the material o Both show same thing o Retelling changes over time • Changes over recalls o Omissions  Info gets lost  Illogical is often forgotten o Rationalization  Make sense of story  Make inferences to help make sense o Dominant themes  Some themes are dominant, anchor point o Transformation • Reconstructive Memory o Add personal knowledge of world to help guide recall o The angry raisins/ grapes of wrath • Loftus and Palmer / eyewitness testimony o Estimate of speed of cars based on the harshness of the verb o Was there any broken glass? (there was none ) o More people in smashed group said there was • Misinformation effect o Subjects see slides depicting an auto accident at an intersection o Test 1: did another car pass the red Datsun while it was stopped at the yield sign  For one group makes sense, there was a sign in the image they saw  25% who didn’t see a sign say they did. • Mcloskey and Zaragoza o Inconsistent info makes them more inaccurate • Hyman, husband and Billings o Contact parents and ask for descriptions of actual events that occurred when subjects were kids o Asked subject q;s about events o Also asked about false events • Misinformation o Form of interference o Source confusion o Warning subject that there is misinformation reduces this effect • Integration of Prior Knowledge o ½ the name was Hitler o Recognition test  5 mins to 1 week later  14 sentences, ½ old  5 mins • Very accurate  1 week • Subject who read martin still very accurate • Subjects who read Hitler confused thematically related new sentences with old o When people have prior info they are going to use for reconstruction o Benefit  More easily understand framework of story  Bring prior info o Cost  Confuse memory of story with own memories of subject matter • Anderson and Picert o Given description of house o Ask to read in on perspective o Home buyer perspective  Leaky roof, damp basement o Burglar perspective st Rare coin collection, tv, stereo o 1 recall (of whole story)  Encoding perspective  Recall detail was greater for details related to perspective o 2 recall  Same perspective or different  Recall improved when perspective changed  New perspective provided a second way to search memory • The cognitive interview o Recount event in more than one sequence, environment and context, multiple perspectives o Provide many cues to help memory, Shown to increase recall • 7 sins of memory o Long term memory is transient  Interference  Retrieval failure  Actual forgetting from long term memory o Absent-mindedness  Failure of attention during encoding by relying on automatic or shallow processes o Blocking  Temporary loss of access to info  More common in elderly  Tip of the tongue o Misattribution  Attributing events to an incorrect source of context o Suggestibility  Incorporate information provided by others into you own recollection of events o Bias  Tendency for knowledge beliefs and feelings to distort memory of past events and influence current and future judgments o Persistence  Tendency to remember things that we don’t want to or need to November 3, 2010 Models of Semantic Memory • Tip of the tongue o State of knowing a fact or name but not being able to recall or retrieve the info right away o Brown and Mcneil  Used dictionary definitions to produce this o 50% of the time people can recall the first letter o About half are resolved within 1 minute o Use partial info cue for word or fact • Episodic vs Semantic o Structuralist (multiple systems) view  Tulving • Different memory systems, distinct from one another o Functionalist  Only one memory system  Different info from one memory system  Specific vs generalized memories  Selecting between instances vs averaging over instances • Semantic Networks o Nodes  Represents concepts in network  Structural and semantic nodes o Link  Relations between features and nodes • Ambiguity o Words with more than one meaning (bank) • Anderson et al o Verb indicates a certain meaning on the word o Instantiation  Encoding a particular structural node as connected to a particular semantic node  Semantic intrudes to influence episodic o Supports encoding specificity • Best cue o Best cue is what matches how it was encoded • Production vs Verification o V—indicating the truth of a test item o P—retrieving an instance from memory when given a cue • Collins and Quillian/ Hierarchical network model  Semantic made of network of basic elements (nodes) has a list of properties associated with it  Critical assumptions • Organization of the info is hierarchical • Assumption of cognitive economy o Feature or properties are represented only once at the highest level of the hierarchy • It takes time to move from one level of the hierarchy to a different level  Verification Task • Answer true or false as quickly as you can • Results o Time based on # of levels to reach o Property is slower than category membership judgment o Facilitation occurs when previous question primes or activates pathway through networks for next question  Category Size effect • Faster at answering about small categories than larger • Semantic Features Model o Defining  Essential features o Characteristic  Common to members of the category • Get rest of NOTES FROM ALYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY • Criticisms o Assumes questionable distinction between characteristic and defining features  Can people identify defining features for every category o Model cannot easily explain priming effects November 8, 2010 Models of Semantic Memory SPREADING ACTIVATION MODEL · Concepts organized in network, but it is not hierarchical. · Features stored with concepts. · New: size of the link between two concepts represents the strength of the associations. · Long distance = weaker association. · Assumes that activation (when one node is activated by thinking about concept) is spread to other concepts similar. Lexical Decision Task · Demonstrates how related items can prime each other. · If the letters represent a word, respond yes; if a non-word, respond no. · Measure time it takes to make decision. Results · When we have pairs of words in the list related to each other (e.g., butter following bread – words that have a relation) you are faster at responding. This is called semantic priming The Fan Effect · The number of connections a concept has. E.G., the concept of robin would have a large fan; aardvarks would have a small fan. The fan effect determines · How quickly you can access information · The likelihood of activating information · Large fan = slower, but greater probability because of more connection Advantages to Spreading Activation Model · Can explain semantic priming. · Can explain typicality effect. · Can explain category size and reversals of category size effects. · Can explain the fan effect. · Model is very flexible, can explain almost any pattern of data. Problems of Spreading Activation Model · Has many assumptions · Flexibility of model means it does not make many strong predictions and it is therefore difficult to test this model. Assumptions · Model assumes that activation spread from node to node. Neely (1977) · Looked at priming between categories and members of categories. · First item is always name of the category. · Second item a member of catendry. · Expect priming if the 2 item is member. E.G., if you present “part of the human body” and then “hand” people will be fast in saying yes. · Varied time between prime and target. · Faster to verify target when it matches prime category (e.g., disease à cancer) · Found greater priming at longer intervals. · Fast at short SOAs, but even faster at long SOAs. · Suspected that at short intervals we see automatic priming (SAM) · Argued 2 aspects to priming (1) automatic priming (2) top-down expectation, which takes longer. Did experiment to show this · Told participants that if you see the prime BUILDING, a part of the body was likely to follow. E.G., building à hand · Found that at long SOAs only, building would prime body part. Only come about through expectations. ACT MODEL · Shares activation model but identifies propositions. · The smallest unit of knowledge that is either true of false. · Propositions represented by ellipses, and are formed by the intersection of nodes. E.G., in semantic memory you have info representing dogs and cat. One piece of info is that dogs hate cats. In semantic network you have proposition that dogs will chase cats. According to model dog is the agent, cat is the object, and chase is the relation. · Combing info of individual nodes to form propositions. · Network can represent categorical information and specifics. · Anderson argues that episodic and semantic memory are represented by nodes forming propositions. Propositions · Unit of analysis when we comprehend and the way we are storing information in memory. · We lose specific details of sentence because of propositions. SCHEMAS · General knowledge structures that represents organized clusters of knowledge. · Represents general procedures, objects, events, or sequence of events. One specific kind of schema is called: SCRIPTS · Knowledge organized around routine activities (e.g., going to restaurant, visiting a doctor or dentist). E.G., when going to a restaurant there is a protocol when someone is serving you. Script Theory Experiment 1 · Wanted to make sure that people share most aspects of a script. · Write down all actions and events for different kinds of scripts. · People had similar script. E.G., going shopping Experiment 2 · Not every action or event included in stories that participants read (they read 18) · Read 3 different versions of the same script. · Subjects then given recognition test for memory for stories. · Incidental memory experiment – did not know memory would be tested. · Asked to rate on a scale of 1 – 7 how much they thought the item had been presented in the story. Results · Script items that had been stated in 1, 2, or 3 stories got high marks (people confident it was in the story) · Items not stated in the script increased as the number of stories went up (confidence increased over the number of scripts) · False memories · Tells us that when a script is activated in a story, all the related items in the script are activated in memory. · Then later, you are going to get confused between items that were actually mentioned or items that are part of your script. Smith & Graeser (1981) · Atypical actions remembered better because they stand out · When you encode a story based on a scripted routine, you use script as a foundation – atypical actions stand out because they are not part of our general script. Connolly, Hockley, & Pratt · Presented 6 different stories based on scripted routines. · Typical and atypical actions presented 0-4 times across different stories (varying times that typical and atypical times mentioned in the stories). · Given surprise memory test – asked people to tell her how many times a certain action was presented. Graph · Accurate at remembering whether atypical items were presented across the different stories. · Far less accurate at remembering typical items Script-Pointer-Plus-Tag Theory When a script is activated: · Store script in episodic memory. · Script represents both stated and inferred typical events. · “Tag on” atypical actions of story to script. November 10, 2010 Categorization • Benefits/ Function of Categorization o Reduces the complexity of the environment o The means by which objects of the world are indentified o Reduces the need for constant learning o Allows us to decide what constitutes appropriate action o Enables us to organize knowledge • Definitions o Categorization: The skill by which we group objects and events into classes so that unique things can be responded to similarly o Concept Identification: determining what a set of stimuli have in common • Explicit Concept o One that you intentionally set out to acquire and have probably developed specific rules for • Implicit Concept o One that was incidentally acquired and is not necessarily conscious • Concept Identification o Artificial concepts  Used to study how people learn concepts or classify  Make up fake concept with rules that define relevant features  Wont influence memory • Reception o The experimenter display stimulus and they must guess, may get feedback • Selection o See all stimuli at once, choose one to ask the experimenter about, feedback • Indentifying concepts o Hypothsis testing: generating rules and testing them  Wholist • Consider all values of the first positive trial then eliminate dimensions as you go  Partist • Choose 1+, test until fail then change • Rosch o Natural categorize instead artificial  Tend to organize things in hierarchy • Subordiante (vehicle) • Basic (car) • Subordinate (Honda)  Categories are fuzzy • Ill defined  Features correlated with each other • Not independent  Some exemplars share more attributes with category than atypical members  Some are more basic than others • Theories of Categorization o Prototype Models  Store common features of exemplars during learning to form prototype o Categorization based on instance  Store separate instances of categories during learning  Retrieve instances and compare novel item to them • Prototypes in Natural Language Categories o Natural language categories ill –defined, fuzzy no set of absolute rules to define boundaries o Theory  Centre of category rather than boundaries  Membership based on family resemblance  Graded membership, some closer to prototype • Role of Exemplars o Preserve info about correlated feature • Theories of Categorization o Use both prototype and instance-based methods of categorization o Different methods used for different types of stimuli and at different stages of category learning November 15, 2010 Visual Imagery • Dual Coding Theory o Paivio, Smythe, and Yuille  Which pair of words are easier or harder to remember  Differ in imagery ability  Two coding systems (memory is better when in both systems) • Verbal/abstract system o Word meaning • Imagery system/non verbal spatial system o Generate and represent visual images o Theories of Representation  Pylshyn • Imagery is epiphenomenon o Its all in your mind o All info is in propositional form  Simple relational statement o No mental pictures  Shepard • Links between perception and mental imagery • Mental rotation task • Decision time is a function of how many degrees you have to move the object • Happens in real time • True for 2D or 3D • Imagery leaves a trail of movement
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