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Wilfrid Laurier University
Lawrence Murphy

sIan Shaughnessy Cognitive Psychology January 9 2013 Chapter 1 Cognitive Processes Perception – The set of front-end processes through which you organize and interpret incoming information Attention – The set of processes through which you focus incoming information Immediate Memory – Short term or working memory Chapter 2 Sensation - Early Processing - Physiological (Neuronal) Perception - Later Processing - Psychological (interpretive) Bottom-up Processing - Flow of information that proceeds from the stimulus to the neural activity driven by this stimulus to its eventual identification. - AKA data driven processing -Stimulus leads to a precept Top-down processing -The processes whereby we bring to bear what we expect, what we know, and what we experience from the surrounding context in determining what it is we’re sensing and subsequently perceiving. - AKA Conceptually-driven processing Are Our Perceptions Constructions? Constructive view -Psychological roots (Helmholtz) -Emphasizes the role of active construction and interpretation in arriving at a three-dimensional percept of the world. -Top-down processing based Direct View - Proposed by J.J. Gibson - What we perceive about our visual environment is picked up directly - Bottom-up based because it emphasizes that the actual data of our environment is picked up by visual mechanisms The Basic Tasks of Visual Perception - Palmer separates the processes of visual perception into two major subsets 1. Pre-attentive Processing -Before attention is directed at a stimulus array -Involves the organization of an incoming stimulus array into discrete perceptual parts and elements 2. Post-attentive Processing -After attention is directed at a stimulus array -Involves identification and further processing of these elements and their categorization Perceptual Organizational Processes -Palmer suggests that when we a confronted with a stimulus array, the first thing we try to do is to impose structure on it. -In other words, figuring out what goes together and what does not Grouping and Region Segmentation Principles of visual organization 1. Proximity – tendency for objects that are near one and other to be grouped together 2. Similarity – tendency for similar objects to be grouped together 3. Good continuation – tendency to perceive lines as flowing naturally in a single direction 4. Closure – How we tend to complete the incomplete, perceptually connecting contours 5. Common fate – How we group elements together if they are moving in the same direction 6. Common Region – How elements that belong to a common designated area are group together 7. Synchrony – Grouping elements that occur at the same time 8. Element Connectedness – How elements are grouped together if they are connected to other elements Palmer tested these principles with a repetition discrimination task where participants had to indicate as quickly as possible whether repeated elements were circles or squares. Figure-Ground - Tendency to segment a visual scene as a figure superimposed on a background Global Precedence - “We see the forest before we see the trees” - Aspects of the environment that are processed first and automatically Classic study from Navon (1977) -Made giant letter H made up of small letters or symbols (S, H, or small boxes) -Wanted to see what individuals would notice first -Global-directed task was to indicate whether the global figure was an H or S -Local-directed task was to indicate whether the component letters were made of H’s or S’s -Results indicated that the global directed task had a greater response time (RT) -Also noted that people in the local task couldn’t help be encode the global one Davidoff, Fonteneau, and Fagot (2008) -Wanted to see if Global Precedence was universal -Tested participants from an Africa tribe -Found that UK participants had global precedence and the Himba participants had local precedence Multisensory Interaction and Integration Synesthesia -Refers to experiences in which input from one sensory system produces an experience not only in that modality but in another one. Perception and Action Affordances -action possibilities offered by a particular object Chapter 3 Attention Basic Characteristics -Limited Capacity -Flexibility -Voluntary Control Pre-Attentive -Before the focus of attention is brought to a stimulus -Occurs quickly (without thinking) Post-Attentive -After the focus of attention has been brought to a stimulus -Slow and effortful
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