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PS260 Chapter 16 notes.docx

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Wilfrid Laurier University
Eileen Wood

Psychology Chapter 14 Notes: Theories of Personality Psychodynamic o , or emotion is blocked from consciousness o Projection – person’s own feelings are repressed and then attributed to someone else o Displacement – people direct their emotions towards things, animals, or other people that aren’t the real object of their feelings o Regression – reverts to a previous stage of psychological development o Denial – people refuse to admit that something unpleasant it happening  Superego: part of the personality that represents conscience, morality, and social standards – last to develop • Judges activities of the id – good feelings when done something good, and bad when done something bad • Partly conscious, but largely unconscious o Development of personality:  Psychosexual stages: idea that sexual energy takes different forms as the child matures (oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital) • Can get fixated (stuck) at a stage – oral stage (smoke, overeating, nail biting), anal stage (anal retentive – holding everything in or anal expulsive – let everything out messy) • Most crucial stage is the phallic (oedipal) stage – age 3-5 or 6 where child unconsciously wishes to possess the parent of the other sex and get rid of the parent of the same sex – called Oedipus conflict (not as powerful in girls because they don’t have a penis) • Child settles into a nonsexual latency stage and prepares for the genital stage with puberty leading to sexuality - Other Psychodynamic Approaches o Jungian Theory  Created by Carl Jung adding to Freud’s theory saying that in addition to the unconscious, all human beings share a vast collective unconscious – universal memories, symbols, images, and themes called archetypes  More positives in the forward-moving strengths of the ego, also believed people are motivated by their future goals and desires as well  First to identify introversion and extroversion o Object relations school  Emphasizes the importance of the infant’s first two years of life and the baby’s formative relationships, especially with the mother – Melanie Klein  Central problem in life is to find a balance between the need for independence and the need for others  Children of both sexes identify first with the mother – different from Freud - Evaluating Psychodynamic Theories o 1. Violating the principle of falsifiability – impossible to confirm or disconfirm o 2. Drawing universal principles from the experiences of a few atypical patients o 3. Basing theories of personality development of the retrospective accounts of adults  Creates an illusion of causality between events – people assume if A came before B, then A must have caused B Modern Study of Personality - Popular personality tests o Long gone theory but these tests still exist such as the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator o Objective tests: standardized ques
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