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PS260 Chapter 15 notes.docx

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Eileen Wood

Psychology Chapter 5 Notes: Body Rhythms and Mental States Biological Rhythms: The Tides of Experience - Consciousness: awareness of oneself and the environment - Biological Rhythms: a periodic, more or less regular fluctuation in a biological system; may or may not have psychological implications - Entrainment: synchronization of biological rhythms within rather than by external cues - Circadian Rhythm: biological rhythm with a period of about 24 hours (sleep-wake cycle) o Reflect the adaptation of organisms to the many changes associated with rotation of Earth on its axis (temperature, light, etc.) o Body’s Clock:  Suprachiasmatic Nucleus: an area of the brain containing a biological clock that governs circadian rhythms. • Regulates fluctuating levels of hormones and neurotransmitters; in return they provide feedback that affect its functioning • Melatonin: hormone secreted by the pineal gland, involved in the regulation of daily biological rhythms (high when sleeping, low when awake) o When the Clock is out of Sync:  Internal Desynchronization: state in which biological rhythms are not in phase with one another • (e.g: airplane flights across time zones) - Moods and Long-Term Rhythms: o Does the Season Affect Moods?  Seasonal Affective Disorder: some people become depressed during particular seasons o Does the Menstrual Cycle Affect Moods?  Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS): the symptoms associated with the days preceding menstruation • Physical symptoms do occur; but emotional symptoms are very rare Rhythms of Sleep - Realms of Sleep: o Rapid eye Movement (REM) Sleep: sleep periods characterized by eye movement, loss of muscle tone, and dreaming o Non-REM: recurs every 90 minutes or so o When you first climb into your bed, your brain emits bursts of alpha waves o Sleep Cycle:  Stage 1: brain waves become small and irregular, and you feel yourself drifting on the edge of consciousness, in a state of light sleep. If awakened you may recall fantasies or a few visual images  Stage 2: your brain emits occasional short bursts of rapid, high-peaking waves called sleep spindles (minor noises wont disturb you)  Stage 3: in addition to the waves from stage 2, your brain occasionally emits delta waves – very slow waves with very high peaks. Breathing and pulse have slowed down, muscles are relaxed, and you are hard to rouse.  Stage 4: Delta waves have taken over, and you are in deep sleep. It will take a loud noise or lots of shaking to awaken you. (sleepwalkers walk in their sleep at this stage)  Overall, after the sequence of 30-45 minutes, you move back up from 4,3,2,1 (70-90 minutes later). At this point, stage one emits long bursts of rapid irregular waves – increasing your heart rate and bl
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