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Intro to Learning Final Notes

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David J White

Learning from Others: Social Learning Adaptive benefits of social learning- -saves time -avoid error -gain knowledge quickly -compete with others Social Influences on Behaviour Contagion- engaging in similar (species typical behaviour). 1 ind. serves as releasing stimulus for unlearned behaviour of others. Social Facilitation- the presence of an individual has a motivational effect on another Local Enhancement- social cues draw attention to a locale associated with reinforcement Stimulus Enhancement- similar to LE but attention is drawn to specific objects in environment Social Learning Mechanisms Imprinting- follow/form attachment to first moving object seen Discriminated Following- following conspecificity to food Observational Conditioning (emulation)- conditioned association between a stimulus and a reinforce Imitation- The copying of a novel of otherwise improbable act or utterance, or some act for which there is clearly no instinctive tendency *Rats use social information throughout their lifetimes to make locally adaptive food selections. Prior to birth – pups show preferences for flavours mother ingested when pregnant. During nursing – pups show preferences for flavours mother ingests when nursing. At weaning – pups follow mother to food sites and eat from those sites Into adulthood – rats follow urine trails to food sites, eat at sites with rat feces around them, prefer foods that other rats have eaten recently, steal food from others But no teaching actually occurs Culture Defined- “A behavioral practice that is relatively enduring, that is shared among two or more members of a group,and that depends in part on socially aided learning for its generation in new practitioners.” Memes- Ideas, melodies, catch-phrases, beliefs (notably religious beliefs), clothing fashion, technology, etc. Chapter 11: Memory Acquisition Retention Retrieval Types of Memory- Procedural vs. Episodic Episodic memory refers more closely to things that actually happen to you in your past, procedural is based on things you have been exposed to but not directly. Working vs. Reference Working memory is short-term memory, once used the information is gone because the next time will be different Reference memory is more similar to long-term memory, used when the information given will be identical through every following trial Testing Memory Matching to Sample, Delayed Match to Sample tests Variables that can be manipulated: -duration of stimulus presentation -intensity -duration of delay Trace Decay Hypothesis- Stimulus produces changes in nervous system that wear off over time (decay). -Decay rate is constant Trace Decay cannot account for the results from certain effects- Effect of delay training (2, 4, 6s delays in training do not inhibit correct responses) Effect of stimulus type- Increasing relevance/belongingness makes the subject’s performance of memory stronger (ex. we remember people’s faces well) *Radial Arm Maze How do rats remember where they have been? Go through a Serial List? (food in arm facing door, food in arm facing picture, etc.) Cognitive Map- mental representation of the local environment and your activities in that environment -Cognitive maps and navigational landmarks are generally the two tools animals use to navigate Retrospective vs. Prospective Coding Retrospective coding keeps track of where you’ve been Prospective coding refers to where you will have to go Mixed strategy – start out at retros
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