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Wilfrid Laurier University
Elizabeth Olds

Vision hearing touch smell taste Senses bombard the brain with a lot of information but what does our brain do with it The only way information from the outside world gets to the brainWe havent been able to build computers that do object recognition as well as humans Perceptual process Stimulus thing that impinges your senses stimulates receptors Electricity electrical signals created by receptors and sent to the brain Experience and action our goal to perceive recognize and react to stimuli Knowledge knowledge we bring to perceptual situationSensory cue signal that can be extracted from sensory input and indicates state of some property in the world Transduction transformation of one from of energy to another form ex Vision light energy becomes electrical signals on receptors Transmission signals activate other neurons to reach the brainNeural processing interactions between neurons send a signal that represents the stimulus to the brain Perception the conscious sensory experience Recognition ability to place the representation in a category ActionPhysiological method how are properties of objects in environment represented by activity in the nervous systemNeurons interested in relationship between nerve impulses and specific perceptions which neurons fire when I look at a chair Is it one neuron or a pattern Localization of function where in brain particular info is processed Psychophysical ApproachFechner finds relationship between stimulus and action use of quantitative methods to measure relationships between stimulusSensory coding specificity specific neurons for certain features Pattern of firing distributed over many neurons for a feature Techniques to investigate lesions single cell recording response properties of a single cell neuroimaging larger areas of the brain activity corresponds to different perceptual tasks fMRI Cognitive Approach how perception is affected by meaning of the stimulus It is affected by experience goalsNeisser thinking as infoprocessing flow chartBottomup constructs a perception based on the information falling on receptorsTopdown starts with analysis of highlevel info such as knowledge or context we dont perceive reality directly it is based on interpretation vision is as accurate as it needs to be it has evolvedThreshold intensity required for 50 yes responses Difference threshold DL as magnitude of stimulus increases so does DL Ratio of DL to stimulus is constant Webers law DLS K Criterion amount of info a particular observer requires before saying yes Catch trials when there is no target to see if low criterion of observer Payoffs neutral paid whether hit or miss of stimulus If you paid a lot of money per hit you would create a bias of criterionROC Curve receiver operating characteristic curve observers performance on detection task Xaxis False alarm Y axis hits Bad sensitivity looks flat Good sensitivity looks like an elbow in top left cornerMagnitude estimation shows relationship between intensity of a stimulus and perception of magnitude of stimulus how intense stimulus actually is compared to how it seems This is for stimuli well above the threshold Present standard stimulus and assign value of 10 Observer assigns numbers for perceived brightness of test lights Response compression A stimulus double the brightness doesnt feel like double the brightness it feels lessPercieved magnitudeP equalsconstant K times stimulus intensity S to the power of n n Stevenss Power Law PKS Search measured in reaction timeCH 2 Neural processing information is analyzed interpreted transformed so resulting signal is easier for perceptual system to understand it is changed from one system to the next how it is changed is determined by neural circuits such as inhibitory excitatory Staining used to prove neuron theory of the nervous system by colouring nerve cells Cerebral cortex 2mm thick layer covering surface of the brain containing machinery for perception thinking and language Modular organization specific functions take place in specific areas of the cortexOccipital lobe vision Temporal lobe hearing Parietal lobe touch temperature pain
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