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Biopsychology Exam Review.docx

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Bruce Mc Kay

Biopsychology Exam Review Chapter 1 Biopsychology as a Neuroscience Introduction o The human brainsquishy wrinkle walnut shaped tissue weighing 13 kilograms Network of neurons Cells that transmit electrochemical signals Estimated 100 billion neurons 100 trillion connectionso Neuroscience The scientific study of the nervous systemo The Case of Jimmy G 49 year old believed he was still 19 Short term memory losso Four Major Themes of the book Thinking creatively about biopsychology People have preconceptions from media Research that involves thinking outside the boxClinical Implications Learning about the functioning of the brain and treatment The evolutionary perspective Comparative approach Genetics of behaviour Neuroplasticity Changeable grows11 What is Biopsychologyo Biopsychology Scientific study of biology of behaviour Behavioural biology Behavioural neurosciencetho Major scientific discipline until the 20 century The organization of Behaviour 1949 DO HebbEclectical approach 12 What Is the Relation between Biopsychology and the Other Disciplines of Neuroscience o Neuroanatomy The study of the structure of the nervous system Chapter 3o Neurochemistry The study of the chemical bases of neural activity Chapter 4o Neuroendocrinology The study of interaction between the nervous system and the endocrine system Chapter 13 and 17o Neuropathology The study of nervous system disorders Chapter 10o Neuropharmacology The study of the effects of drugs on neural activity Chapter 4 15o Neurophysiology The study of the functions and activities of the nervous system Chapter 4 13 What types of research characterize the Biopsychological approacho Human and Nonhuman subjects Rats most common no human Brain differences more quantitative and qualitative Non human advantages Behaviour much simpler Insights from comparative approach Ethically not possible on humanso Experiments and Non experiments Experiments Study causation Two or more test conditions Between subjects design o Different group tested under each condition Within subject designo Testing the same group under each condition Independent variableo The difference between the conditions Dependent variable o Measured to assess the effect of the independent variable Confounded variableo Other factors that could influence the dependent variableCoolidge effect o Copulating male who becomes incapable of continuing to copulate with one sex partner can often recommence copulating with a new sex partnero Sexual fatigue of male confounding variable when trying to study effect in femaleso Eliminated this by having female copulate with another male then test with familiar or unfamiliar o Females display lordosisQuasiexperimental Studies When it is impossible to randomly assign conditions Studies people who have been exposed to the conditions in the real world Comparing alcohols with non alcoholicsCase Studies Focus on a single subject Indepth Poor generalizabilityo Pure and Applied ResearchPure research Motivated by curiosity Vulnerable to political regulation Applied research Intended to bring some benefit to mankind 14 What are the Divisions of Biopsychologyo Physiological PsychologyStudies the neural mechanisms of behaviour through direct manipulation in controlled experiments Non human pure researcho Psychopharmacology Similar to previous but focus on manipulation of neural activity and behaviour with drugs Applied research human and nono Neuropsychology Psychological effects of brain damage in human patients Quasiexperiements and case studies Focus on cerebral cortex Most applied Mr R One third of left handers have language functions in right hemisphere Damage to temporal lobe poor language skillso Psychophysiology Relation between physiological activity and psychological processes in human subjects EEGMeasure brain activity from scalp Understanding attention emotion and information processingo Cognitive Neuroscience Youngest division Neural bases of cognition Higher intellectual processes such as thought memory attentionhuman subjects o Comparative Psychology Deals with the biology of behaviour Compare different species in order to understand evolution Ethological research Study of animal behaviour in natural environment Evolutionary psychology Behavioural genetics 15 Converging Operations
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