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Camie Condon

Motivation  To be moved  Single and multiple causes (ie; why we eat)  Involuntary and voluntary motivators Emotion (why motivation theorists today are interested in understanding feelings)  Negative feelings can and often do undermine goal directed behaviour while positive feelings can and often do sustain goal-directed behaviour Instincts  They are inherited impulses that result in specific pattern of behaviour  We can change in order to be able to deal with environmental pressures more efficiently  Main people are Darwin and Freud  Biologists use the word instinct to refer to the belief that there is an innate or biological basis for adaptive behaviour  Psychologists have largely abandoned it-didn’t help predict what will happen next  McDougal was important in development of initial instinct theory Darwin/ Theory of Evolution  Said that we are constantly going under biological structural changes as a result of environmental pressures  Principle of Variation: trait variation within a population  Principle of natural selection environment selects trait that aids survival  Natural selection: members of a species with physical or behavioural attributes that allowed them to better deal with environmental pressures would survive and reproduce and as a result they would pass along this biological structure to their offspring; on the other hand, those that could not survive would not be able to reproduce, and thus their biological structure would be lot over time  Darwin’s contribution was not the discovery of evolution, it was that natural selection is the mechanism by which evolution occurs Freud  ID: impulses; devil; over development would lead to disregard of all others o Responsible for 4 F’s  Fight  Flight  Food  Fornication o Unconscious o Response to Pleasure Principle:  Superego: morally right; ideal; angel; over development would lead to rigid personality  EGO: in middle who is balance btw both  Said our energy comes from libido  Instincts give rise to representations of the goal object Drives  Means same as instincts and needs Needs  Needs theory: we stop addressing threat once our needs are met o Maslow  The idea that needs give rise to action is no longer used; it is that needs give rise to dispositions and whether these dispositions lead to action depends on previous circumstances Maslow  Needs theory  Least supported empirical research but just makes so much sense that people don’t even question it; made up of observations and intuitions  Hierarchy of motives-physiological, safety, love and belongingness, esteem, self- actualization  Flawed because some people may stop and not seek higher goals  Criticism is also that some may occur simultaneously  Some higher needs maybe are met before lower ones (ie travel leads to instability but maybe assist with esteem) Goal Theorists  Set goal which creates tension as you work towards goal and then the tension is released  Goals give rise to action  People adopt different orientations to the environment depending on whether they feel threatened; if threatened they adopt an ego orientation, otherwise they adopt a mastery orientation Reinforcer (positive and negative)  Negative reinforcement: removal or aversive stimulus o Is better and long lasting then punishment because punishment is immediate and we tend to forget the pain that occurs from punishment o positive reinforcement: reward Growth/Mastery theories  come from our want to master environment  focus has been to uncover the process of mechanisms that guide this tendency to master  assumes the tendency to master develops from a fundamental curiosity or exploratory need Expectancy-Value theory  humans have expectations about outcomes but also that they attach values to these outcomes Arousal  critical for survival  arousal is mobilization or activation in preparation for behaviour  indicator of amount of energy that is being made available  increased arousal=more vigorous performance but its not always more efficient it depends on the complexity skill level and motivation  physiological arousal; ANS (sympathetic is arousal, parasympathetic is preparing for arousal); brain arousal (different areas aroused depending on activity) Approach  Psychological  Do something out of desire  Not always related to specific goal  Hot/cool theory of gratification Hot/cool system  Hot System: LIMBIC o Go, simple, fast, accentuated by stress, emotional  Cool System: FRONTAL o Know, complex, slow, develops late, self-control, attenuated by stress  Separates us from other mammals Avoidant  Do something to avoid something else  Compelling and hard to ignore  Aversive; strong immediate need to distance yourself  Avoid danger o From evolutionary perspective when we sense danger, we have an instinctive need to avoid the threat to our survival void causes Extended Adaptation  Emerging brain knew nothing of cell phones, driving, bikes, etc. Components of Motivation  Motivation is concerned with understanding how dispositions can lead to actions, through the interaction of biological, learned, and cognitive processes Food preferences  21% fat, 8% sugar  combination of innate and learned Hypothalamus  Found in limbic system  Jobs: o Control and integrate ANS o Feelings of rage and aggression o Regulates body temp o Regulates food (contains feeding center and satiety center)  Satiety=feeling content o Contains thirst center waking state and sleeping patterns Prefrontal Cortex  handles emotion, behaviour regulation (difference between right and wrong) has millions of neural pathways that help it communicate with deeper structures of the brain such as the amygdala Neurotransmitters  Involved in regulation of mood  They fit into receptor sites Amygdala  Fear responses, startle, facial recognition  Role in memory and emotional reactions  Almond shaped group of neurons deep within medial temporal lobes  Should work with prefrontal cortex; if they have miscommunication is could lead u to be a serial killer  Highly reactive amygdala means your likely to experience greater negative affect Preparedness Contrapreparedness Mind BIS  Behaviour Inhibition System  Conditioned signals of punishment and non-reward  Activated=arousal to inhibit on-going behaviour BAS  Activated by conditioned signals of rewards and non-punishment  Activated=arousal and increased approach  Born with this or BIS being more dominant but you can teach your brain to prefer one over the other CCK (the Satiety hormone)  Hormone released after food intake; short term regulation  The fatty acids and glucose enter the small intestine, which triggers the CCK. So once the CCK is triggered, the higher the CCK level the more satiety and fullness
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