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Midterm1 Definitions & Theories.pdf

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Camie Condon

Midterm Definitions & Theories Chapter 1 – Themes in the Study of Motivation Terms  Define: Motivation o Simply to be Moved o We assume that there is a cause for every behavior o Involuntary Vs Voluntary  Approach Behaviour o To do something out of want or desire  Hot/cool Theory of gratification  Avoidant Behaviour o Do something to avoid something else  Can be defined in term of a specific goal  Arousal o Mobilization or activation in preparation of actual behaviour  is an indicator of the amount of energy that is being made available for action. o Increased arousal = more vigorous performance  Not always more efficient o Physiological Arousal  Pounding heart  Sweaty palms  Muscle tension o Autonomic nervous system (invoountary) Midterm Definitions & Theories PET Scan fMRI 3d photos of the brain oxygen flow information to produce an image showing the degree of activity in a particular The radioactive particles concentrate in those region areas of the brain that have the highest blood flow or highest utilization of glucose. ( uses energy waves radioactive substance are injected in a persons blood)  Needs o Without direction survival is impossible  Goals give rise to action & Create Tensions  Hunger Hamburger -> diet -> salad  Free will (Volition) o Wil implies that people can creat their own destiny 1. New possible selce not simply a product of biology an enviro 2. Limited by our biology: can learn the piano but not a concert pianist 3. Self regulation of behaviour…  Emotion –role that emotion play in motivating behaviour o Feelings are an important determinant of behaviour o Holding hands will improve your happiness o People in meaningful relationships will live longer People and Theories - Hot/ Cool System p.3 (Practucal Aplication o Hot System – Limbic  Go, simple, fast, emotion, o Cool System – Frontal  Know, complex, slow, self control, develops later o Core idea is the develppment of will power, control temptations o Its hard to delay gratification o High stress means Hot system means lower will power = give into temptations - Darwin –his main contributions o Variation Midterm Definitions & Theories o Natural selection o Instincts  Inherited impulses that result in specific pattern of behaviour - Freud – learning chapter (not sectual) o ID – Human instinct  5 F’s  Unconscious  Responds to Peasure principle o Ego – Maintining order o Superego – Moral developlement - Maslow – His Pyramid - - Costra and McCray 5 factor model o OCEANS  Openness  Conscientiousness  Extraversion  Agreeableness  Neuroticism - Midterm Definitions & Theories Chapter 2 – Components of Motivation  Limbic System  Corpus collosum, frontal cortex, septum, olfactory bulb, amygdala, Hyppocampus etc.  Does emotion, behaviour, long term memory, olfaction  Influences the endocrine system & autonomic nervous system  Pleasure center  Hypothalamus  Part of the limbic system  Neurotransmitters : send messages from cell to cell  Regulation of mood  Dendrites receive messages, then the neuron fires  The neuron fires, sends info down the axon that divides like small branches (dendrites) at the end of the dendrites are terminals that come very close to other dendrites.  When the nerve impulse reaches the terminal, it releases a chemical or neurotransmitter.  Neurotransmitters fit into the receptor cites of the receiving neuron.  Temperament : Personality o Genetically inherited o Preference for intense o Early childhood development stimulation o Fixed, for the most part o Disposition toward negativity o Regulate attention and behaviour  BIS – Behavioural Inhibition System – do what I should do, do h/w etc. o Conditioned signal of punishment and non-reward o Activated = arousal to inhibit on going behaviour  BAS – Behavioural Activation System – Taking risks, impulsive o Conditions signals of reward and non-punishment o Activated = Arousal and increased approach Midterm Definitions & Theories  Reinforcement o Positive reinforcement – clean room = chocolate bar o Nega
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