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Midterm

PS 264 Midterm 1 Review.doc

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Department
Psychology
Course
PS264
Professor
Camie Condon
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter 1 • Instincts o Thomas Aquinas o Biology o Behaviour can be mechanical o Freud  Group of instincts with own source of energy  Libido • Draw all energy from • Energy with one instinct increases become source of tension • Drives o Learning Theory o Watson  3 innate emotional reaction • Fear, rage, love o Hull  Activation of drive leads to random behaviour, accidently performing a response that reduces drive  After repeated reproduction a habit is formed  Behaviour= Drives x Habits o Skinner  Not necessary for a drive to be reduced for learning to occur  Behaviour is under the control of external rewards o Bandura  Acquire new behaviour by observation and modeling  • Needs o The energy, direction and persistence of behaviour are due to existence of needs o Maslow’s hierarchy for self actualization o Strengthened through rewards o Five factor model  Extraversion  Neuroticism  Agreeableness  Conscientiousness  Openness to experience • Food Preferences o B  Unlearned preferences • Sweet and fatty • Also salty o L  Cultural preferences  What is available o C  What is good for our health • Factor Analytic Theory o Five factor model o Murray and Maslow o People characterized by their needs, different strengths of different needs o OCEAN  Measure on continuum o Openness  to experience also called intellect characterized by having a wide range of experiences valuing intellectual matters o Conscientiousness  characterized by productivity, ethical behaviour and responsibility o Extraversion  outgoing, excitement seeking tendencies o Agreeableness  warmth, compassion, sympathy o Neuroticism  Sometimes referred to as emotional stability, book refers to it as the negative, but this is not an accurate portrayal. It is characterized by anxiety, and anger but also has dimension’s of emotional regulation, motivation and interpersonal skills o Hierarchy of motives  Physiological  Safety  Love and belongingness  Esteem  Self actualization • Maslow/ Needs Theory o Little empirical support o Some needs are simultaneous o Brightest and best • Darwin o Principle of variation  Trait variation within a population o Principle of natural selection  Environment selects trait that aids survival o Instincts  Inherited impulses that result in specific pattern of behaviour • Freud o ID  Base instinct for fight, flight, food and fornication  Unconscious  Pleasure principle o EGO  Responsible for maintaining order o Superego  Moral development • Volition o Free will o Can do or become anything you want o 1. Construct new self through goal setting; not limited by bio or enviro o 2. limited by bio or enviro o 3. self regulation of behaviour  we can learn to do things to change but nothing major • Motivation o To be moved o Has multiple causes o Voluntary  Psychological Domain  External • Approach o Do something out of want or desire  Hot/ cool theory (book) • Hot- limbic o Go, fast, easy, emotional o Accentuated by stress o Approach o Little thought process • Cool- frontal o Know, hard, slow, attenuated by stress o Avoid • Avoidant o Do something to avoid something else  Defined in terms of a specific goal  Tend to be compelling  Aversive difficult to ignore  Evolutionary perspective • Usually involves some threat to survival • o Involuntary  Thing that we do not have any control over  Environmental • 8 themes of Motivation o Arousal  Mobilization or activation in preparation of actual behaviour • Indicates how much energy is available • Increase leads to more vigorous performance  Physiological arousal • Heart pounding, sweaty hands, muscle tension  Autonomic nervous system • Sympathetic= arousal • Parasympathetic= counteracts  Brain Arousal • Different areas aroused depending on operations • Which part receives more oxygen and energy • Techniques for Measurement o PET scan  Position emission topography  3D  Radio active isotype injected into body  Computer reads which areas it is concentrated in, with highest blood flow or use of energy  Which part of the brain is used for certain functions o fMRI  Magnetic Resonance Imaging • High resolution image from energy waves, when the brain is surrounded by magnetic field • Oxygen flow information to show activity in that region • Persistence o Inclined to repea
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