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PS 264 Midterm 2 Reviews.doc

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Camie Condon

PS 264 Midterm 2 Reviews Chapter 5 • Arousal o Mobilization or activation in preparation of actual behaviour o Activation of the brain and body • Selective Attention o High levels of arousal o Narrow attention to classify new info • Negative Activation System o Avoidance, inhibiting, when we are threatened • Positive Activation System o Approach, directed toward pleasure and reward • Stimuli o Cue function  Determines type of response o Arousing function  Determine intensity of response • Collative Variables o Stimuli characteristics that include  Novelty- new and different  Complexity- # elements and dissimilarity  Incongruity- Difference, conflicting • Incentives o Stimuli that elicit affective response  Attract or repel, positive or negative  Can heighten arousal • Tasks o Activity in order to attain incentive  Severity of the need  Value of incentive  Likelihood of success • Trait Arousal o Characterizes the individual more or less independently of the situation o Characterization across situations o Continuous state  How on approaches • State Arousal o Transitory emotional response involving feelings of tension and apprehension o Arises out of the individuals interaction with the environment o 2 types  Sensory overload • Over stimulation, complex environment  Cognitive Dissonance • When two pieces of info are contradictory, narrow attention  Evaluation Arousal • Specific to evaluative situations • Peak Performance o Doing the very best that we are capable of o Persist in the face of distractions and adversity • Autonomic Arousal o Arouses the body, again directing blood to those parts of the body that demand greater energy • Cortical Arousal o Activation of various brain systems, often in combination with other systems as the task demands • Hypothalmus o Stimulates, activit in the autonomic nervous system and in the endocrine • • Anterior Cingulate Cortex o Control anxiety and arousal • • Epinepherine o High levels linked to brain activation, no direct link to mood • • Norepinepherine o Low levels linked to negative mood, high levels linked to positive mood • • Sympathetic Nervous System o Division of the ANS o Physiological arousal8 • • Reorganization o When arousal becomes very high our attention is directed toward the location and identification of things in the environment that might threaten our survival • Role of inhibiting responses • Outcomes of sensory deprivation • Organization of attention o Broad or narrow Chapter 6 • Biological Rhythms o Periodic fluctuation in a bio system • Endogenous Biological Rhythms o Circadian Rhythms  Every 24 hours o Infradian  Less than once a day o Ultradians  More than once a day, 90 mins • The amingergic cells o Activation o Group of neurons in the brain stem o Rest during sleep • Lucid Dreaming o Actively participate in the dream state as though we are awake o Record dreams o Recognize when you are in a dream o Confirm to self that you are dreaming o Plan what you intend to do when lucid o Practice skills • Sleep Realms o Drift o Small noises wont bother o Pulse and breathing change o Deep sleep o REM • REM o Paralysis • Aminergic System • Prefrontal Cortex • Limbic System • Amygdala • Lucid dreaming o We can make decision about what we want to do o Learn to deal with something in dream can transfer to life • What does sleep do for us, o Metabolic rate, BO, glucose, insulin o Attention, information processing, creativity o Critical for development • sleep deprivation o unable to reduce sleep to less than 4.5 hours o significant reduction in REM o sleepy, fatigue Chapter 7 • Drug Addiction o uncontrollable craving controversial, generally depends upon a physiological need created by the lack of drug. For example crack fills the dopamine receptor cites, so the body then stops producing it’s own dopamine. • Substance Abuse • Tolerance o body habituates to the effects because of repeated experience, the result is the need to increase the amount of drug taken to get the desired effect • Withdrawal o negative feeling when drug begins to leave the body along with the positive feeling when the first was still taken. Most often dysphoria and distress. The intensity depends on the length of time since the last drug used. • Dependence o physiological need for the drug to maintain a “normal” feeling. Without the drug fall into withdrawal • Craving o strong desire to ingest a drug, preoccupation refers to narrowing or focusing of attention and thought to how to obtain the drug or the high that it will bring. • Preoccupation • Solomon’s Opponent Process Theory o Counters the disruptive effect of a drug, homeostasis o Repeated drug abuse will strengthen o • Degredation o process whereby enzymes break down neurotransmitters into basic elements so that they can be re-synthesized to create new neurotransmitters. • Re-uptake o process where neurotransmitters are released at the synapses and reabsorbed into the synapse and stored for later release. • Dopamine System/ Dopaminergic System o Reward system o Want to do it again • Why People Become Addicted o More likely if it is to avoid a noxious or aversive mood state than if to use to enhance an already positive mood • Initial Motivation to Use o Bio  Begin experimenting age 12  Mood • Manage their mood  Activity • Children that are hyperactive more likely to use drugs  Novelty-seeking • Need for complex sensations and experiences and the willingness to take phys and soc risk for the sake of such experience o Learned Component  Learn to cope with environment  Based on temperament  Less family support in children  As parents get less supportive they turn to their peers o Cognitive Component  Self control, lack of control linked to drunk abuse  Lack coping skills  Self control is not from birth  Limited resources • Why Drugs Are Addictive o Bio  Heroin • Euphoria • Abnormally high amounts of dopamine, • Dopaminergic pathway • Endorphins, natural opioids produced by the body • Expectations, withdrawal depends on what you know or think  Coke • Blok re-uptake of dopamine  Hallucinogens • Anxiety and apprehension • Changes in perceptual processes  Nicotine • Activate the dopamine and opioid overproduction system  Alcohol • Stimulate the central nervous system, depress brain activity  o Learned  Heroin • Get high from the needle not just the drug, situation and environment • Habit formation • Soldiers used heroin in Vietnam but most did not at home unless they had been addicted before  Coke • Dopaminergic activity • Conditioned response cues previously associated with coke use were mediated by increased dopamine • Renew addiction in response to a particular mood  Halluncinogens • No dependency or craving • Don’t get addicted to drugs you use infrequently  Nicotine • Cues from the environment to smoke  Alcohol • Using drugs influenced by situational factors o Perceptions of the appropriateness or social desirability of a behaviour in a specific situation o Extent to which our companions drink • Culture • Family environment o Cognitive  Heroin • Giving up the addiction • Make effort to in
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