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PS 264 Final Exam

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Camie Condon

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PS 264 Chapter 11: Positive Emotions March 14, 2011  Happiness o Lazarus  Reasonable progress towards a want or desire o Operational  How people feel  SWB, subjective well being  Gratitude o To be thankful, greatful thinking  Biology o Happiness high extroversion, negatively to neuroticism o Linked to BAS/BIS o Left prefrontal- happy, positive emotions o Endorphins from pituitary send message to hypothalamus  Suppress pain and increase euphoria  Social Relationship o Positive affect  Sense of self efficiency, overall well being  2 aspects  Selfish  Social  Adaptive Behaviour o Good health, professional success, confidence, relationships, resources  Fear o Culturally based  Coping o Flow  Being able to do something you like, no worry of criticism throw self into, not judged. Challenges at all levels  Sense of accomplishment o Coping  Reasonable progress to attain goal when something is in the way o 4 feelings linked to happiness  Extraversion  Optimism  Self esteem  Personal control/ self-efficiency o Catecholamine  Reduce stress response  Optimism o Generalized expectancy that good as opposed to bad outcomes will generally occur when one is confronted with problem o Healthier, achievement link, o View all desired outcomes as attainable regardless of setbacks  Bio Component o Adaptation o Endorphins  Learned o Thinking styles o Failures external  Hope o Belief you can attain goals, generate alternatives o Pathway thinking  One or more goals o Agentic thinking  Movement along chosen path  ABCDE Method o Step1  Adversity, Belief, and Consequences o Step 2  Distraction and Disputation and Energization Terms  Agentic thinking o Movement along chosen path  Avoidant Style o pathways  BAS/BIS o Related to happiness o BAS  Produces reward important for instrumental behaviour  Dopaminergic pathway  Active for happiness o BIS  Linked to neuroticism  Inactive for happiness  Efficacy o Self- Concerned with people’s beliefs in their capabilities to mobilize the motivation, cognitive resources, and courses o Outcome- their beliefs about how satisfying it will be to achieve a certain goal  Happiness o Making reasonable progress toward the realization of a goal o SWB  Dopamine  Goal congruent emotions o Facilitate and sustain the attainment of personal goals  comp system  flow o Being able to do something you like, no worry of criticism throw self into, not judged. Challenges at all levels o prefrontal cortex allows them to manage and manipulate images  Seligman’s theory of hope and optimism o Optimism grows out of people’s explanatory style. o Regard setbacks failures, and adversity as temporary, as specific to a given situation o Hope involves explanatory style in which problems are regarded as temporary and specific to a given situation o Optimism more inclusive  Set-point theory of happiness o most believe changes in life circumstances do not have long-term effects on our happiness. In fact this belief has been the dominant model of subjective well- being: People adapt to major life events, both positive and negative, and our happiness pretty much stays constant through our lives, even if it is occasionally perturbed. predicts that winning the lottery, for example, won’t make you happier in the long run. While a divorce or even a major illness will throw your life into upheaval, over the long-run your happiness level will eventually return to where it was at before. levels in fact do change; adaptation is not inevitable and life events do matter. The most important variables are that not all life changes are the same and that there are differences in the way that individuals adapt to life changes.  The flow experience o Happiness comes from doing things that are satisfying in themselves- intrinsic motivation o 1. Completely aware of everything they are doing o 2. They are able to get immediate feedback o 3. Feel that their abilities match the task before them o Happiness not experienced during but occur strongly when finished flow activity o Free of fear and anxiety o Achieved by allowing oneself to become completely absorbed in an activity o Setting aside ego and freeing self from distractions o Activity become complete and total focus o Need to increase its complexity so it will continue to challenge Chapter 12 Creativity  Novelty o New and is only new as long as there is info not fully processed  Exploration develops competence  Interest held longer= complexity  Theory of Exploratory Behaviour o Optimal complexity o Adaptation=accustomed to the stimuli o Pacer range= consistent progression o Effectance motivation  Positive Feedback Loop o Novelty--. Develop Competence Motivates toward interaction familiarity  Anxiety o Exploration stop when too anxious  Biological Component o BAS  Reward and arousal activates  Produces positive affect o Continually comparing actual with expected o Match= continue BAS o Discrepancy= activation of BIS= anxiety  Learned/Cognitive o Self-determination theory  Inclined to respond to novelty and develop competence o Three innate needs  Competence  Relatedness  Autonomy  Behaviour that has arisen in the absence of external controls or influence  Encouraged o Greater motivation o Curiosity  Control emphasized o Initiative decreases o Learning less effective o less conceptual and creative processing o adventure= skill o emotional high  Sensation Seeking o The need for varied novel and complex sensations and experiences and the willingness to take risks  Creativity o Linked  Sensation seeking, curiosity, competence o 3 reasons why  Need for variety and complexity  Need to communicate ideas  Need to solve problems o Tendency to generate or recognize ideas that can problem solve, communicate and entertain  Biology component o Prefrontal cortex= creativity  Right side  Manipulate images,  Positive affect- dopamine release  Learned/ Cognitive o Evolved to isolate predictability and consistency o Behaviour become habit  Kills creativity Terms  Effectance Motivation o The tendency to explore is based on a more general motive o Understanding the nature of the environment and the order inherent in it.  Competence o Basic need that has its roots in our need to adapt and survive as humans living in a world that is characterized by threats and opportunities  Self-esteem o Have a good opinion of self and ability to deal with important things in their lives o Pride in oneself in which one becomes aware and accepting of one’s imperfections while cherishing one’s inherent strengths and positive qualities  Autonomy o Behaviour that has arisen in the absence of external controls  Dopamine o Positive affect caused by elevated levels  Complexity o Number of elements and dissimilarity  Intrinsic vs extrinsic motivation o I: replaced exploratory behaviour  Inherent tendency to seek out novelty and challenge to extend and exercise one’s capacities to explore and learn  Competence and autonomy o E:  Meaning by some reward punishment system  Sensation seeking o the need for varied novel and complex sensations and experiences and the willingness to take physical and social risks for the sake of such experiences  Pacer range o Consistent progression  Positive feedback loop o Novelty Develop Competence Motivates toward interaction familiarity  Right prefrontal cortex o Involved in a range of planned activities o Creativity linked to right side o When the two sides cannot communicate no creativity  Need for Self Determination o 3 innate needs  Competence, relatedness and autonomy  Decision Making styles and sensation seeking o Like to make decisions, like to make them quickly, can make them without having complete information, and are willing to abandon plans that are not workings Chapter 13: Competence  Competence o Set of skills to successfully deal with threats, interact with the environment, set goals and view one’s self as capable  Need to control and achieve  Predictability o Babies  Needs food, comfort, safety  Cries to get needs  Mastery over our environment  Cannot be done under great anxiety  Psychological and Physical Health o Lack of control  Bulimia, anorexia, depression  Drug addiction o Perceived control  optimism  Biology o Rotter  Locus of Control Scale  Range to which a person is internal or external  Internal  Both good and bad consequences as their own fault  External  View as good and bad as things outside their control  Learned o Reinforcement theory  Internal  Past experiences totalling desired outcome  External  Control does not total desired outcome  Uncertainty o Culture  Independent vs collective  Active vs self-control  Achievement Motivation o Desire to overcome obstacles, exercise power, strive to do something difficult as quickly as possible  Atkinson’s Cognitive Choice o Addition to definition o Need to avoid any particular failure o No matter what they want to achieve there is more incentive for them to not fail o Need to achieve tempered by need to avoid failure o Believe you will succeed then incentive value low o Expectation of failure high incentive low o Expectation of failure low incentive still low  Dweck Theory of Competence o Entity Theory  Intell is fixed, limit possibilities  Avoid goals that give evidence of lack of intelligence o Incremental Theory  Intell is changeable  Choose challenging tasks  Persistent o 2x2 Approach  Mastery goal  Focused on gaining competence  Governed by intrinsic motivation  Effort: persistence  Performance goal  Focused on demonstration of competence  Avoid unfavourable judgements  Four types of goal orientation  Mastery approach o Development and mastery  Mastery avoidance o Avoiding negative judgement of competence  Performance approach o Attaining favourable judgement  Performance avoidance o Avoiding unfavourable judgement  Self Regulation o set difficult goals o How we attain our goals  Proximal and Distal Goals o P-Immediate future o D- Future o Cannot have a distal goal without a proximal goal  Self efficacy and goals o Discrepancy o Expecting outcome Terms  Achievement motivation o Desire to overcome obstacles, exercise power, strive to do something as quickly and efficiently as possible  Control o Need for a predictable environment o Effect competence may be reduced  Fear of failure  Success  Mastery o Gaining competence o Governed by intrinsic motivation o Effort, persistence  Self regulation o Observation, self evaluation, and self reaction o Set difficult and attainable goals o Identify task strategies o Make use of imagery o Carefully manage time o Structure environment o Help when needed o Learn to self moniter o Self evaluate o Create positive outcomes  Proximal and distal goals o Proximal  Immediate future  Create an action  Change constantly purpose to attain distal goal o Distal  Future aspirations  Keep motivated under tough circumstances  Social cognitive theory o Set difficult goals, depends on perceiving whether or not they have the abilities to attain the goal  Social learning theory o People can also learn by modeling the behaviour of another person o We can acquire a new behaviour simply by observing that it produces some desired
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