Motivation The process of starting, directing, and maintaining physical and psychological
activities; includes mechanisms involved in preferences for one activity over another and the
vigor and persistence of responses.
Emotion A complex pattern of changes, including physiological arousal, feelings, cognitive
processes, and behavioral reactions, made in response to a situation perceived to be personally
Instincts Preprogrammed tendencies that are essential to a species's survival.
Drives Internal states that arise in response to a disequilibrium in an animal's physiological
Needs: A condition or situation in which something is required or wanted. Give direction to
Reinforcer Any stimulus that, when made contingent upon a response, increases the probability
of that response.
Conditioned reinforcers In classical conditioning, formerly neutral stimuli that have become
Conditioned response (CR) In classical conditioning, a response elicited by some previously
neutral stimulus that occurs as a result of pairing the neutral stimulus with an unconditioned
Conditioned stimulus (CS) In classical conditioning, a previously neutral stimulus that comes to
elicit a conditioned response.
Food preferences: acquired by enculturation. Children learn both which foods are edible and
which foods taste good. All cultures have preferred foods, which constitute a subset of actual or
possible food sources
Hormones The chemical messengers, manufactured and secreted by the endocrine glands, that
regulate metabolism and influence body growth, mood, and sexual characteristics.
Hypothalamus The brain structure that regulates motivated behavior (such as eating and
drinking) and homeostasis.
Neurotransmitters Chemical messengers released from neurons that cross the synapse from
one neuron to another, stimulating the postsynaptic neuron.
Stereotypes Generalizations about a group of people in which the same characteristics are
assigned to all members of a group.
Contingency management A general treatment strategy involving changing behavior by
modifying its consequences. Volition or will is the cognitive process by which an individual decides on and commits to a
particular course of action. It is defined as purposive striving and is one of the primary human
psychological functions. Others include affection (affect or feeling), motivation (goals and
expectations), and cognition (thinking). Volitional processes can be applied consciously or they
can be automatized as habits over time.
Mind is the set of cognitive faculties that enables consciousness, perception, thinking,
judgement, and memory—a characteristic of humans, but which also may apply to other life
temperament refers to those aspects