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Motivation terms.docx

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Camie Condon

Motivation The process of starting, directing, and maintaining physical and psychological activities; includes mechanisms involved in preferences for one activity over another and the vigor and persistence of responses. Emotion A complex pattern of changes, including physiological arousal, feelings, cognitive processes, and behavioral reactions, made in response to a situation perceived to be personally significant. Instincts Preprogrammed tendencies that are essential to a species's survival. Drives Internal states that arise in response to a disequilibrium in an animal's physiological needs. Needs: A condition or situation in which something is required or wanted. Give direction to behaviour. Reinforcer Any stimulus that, when made contingent upon a response, increases the probability of that response. Conditioned reinforcers In classical conditioning, formerly neutral stimuli that have become reinforcers. Conditioned response (CR) In classical conditioning, a response elicited by some previously neutral stimulus that occurs as a result of pairing the neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus. Conditioned stimulus (CS) In classical conditioning, a previously neutral stimulus that comes to elicit a conditioned response. Food preferences: acquired by enculturation. Children learn both which foods are edible and which foods taste good. All cultures have preferred foods, which constitute a subset of actual or possible food sources Hormones The chemical messengers, manufactured and secreted by the endocrine glands, that regulate metabolism and influence body growth, mood, and sexual characteristics. Hypothalamus The brain structure that regulates motivated behavior (such as eating and drinking) and homeostasis. Neurotransmitters Chemical messengers released from neurons that cross the synapse from one neuron to another, stimulating the postsynaptic neuron. Stereotypes Generalizations about a group of people in which the same characteristics are assigned to all members of a group. Contingency management A general treatment strategy involving changing behavior by modifying its consequences. Volition or will is the cognitive process by which an individual decides on and commits to a particular course of action. It is defined as purposive striving and is one of the primary human psychological functions. Others include affection (affect or feeling), motivation (goals and expectations), and cognition (thinking). Volitional processes can be applied consciously or they can be automatized as habits over time. Mind is the set of cognitive faculties that enables consciousness, perception, thinking, judgement, and memory—a characteristic of humans, but which also may apply to other life forms. temperament refers to those aspects
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