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PS268 Midterm #1 Review

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Wilfrid Laurier University
Bruce Mc Kay

HI229- September 10, 2013 9/17/2013 8:31:00 AM History 229 : Intro Dr. John Laband Office Thursdays 10 to 11 DAWB 5-129 Midterm : Map Quiz, Identification (Glossary), and 3 short essay questions (Do 1, based on a chapter of the book). Book Report: Accessing Final: *Essays Africa In The World A) The Study of Africa: How does one study Africa? - Africa is strange, different; North American norms do not apply. - Africa - One wife in a civil marriage and customary wives - The world’s most diverse continent in the world, 54 nation states, 1 and a half thousand languages spoken, big and diverse in many ways. - History, is the most ancient in the world First originated and first evolved, colonized the earth, and highly complex civilization Important themes: [African development over time] How Africa has been represented. Also understanding that it can be seen in all kinds of ways. B) What is Africa? Who invented Africa? Outside viewers are inventing a romantic outlook. Congo philosopher: V.Y Mdimbe 1998, “The invention of Africa” – *It is everything Europe is not* - Few Africans thought of themselves of Africans, as did Europeans as Europeans. You are whatever society, tribe, or status you came from. - Africa is named after a Roman Province, valuable for its wheat and olives - Now Libya The Portuguese sailed around the east coast of Africa in the 15 thand 16 thcentury. Arabs were there before them Africa was “Egypt to Morocco” – Southern side of the Mediterranean (Arabs) th Africa was in the 16 century apart of the Mediterranean world, it was only when you sailed around Africa that you saw black people. European involvement in Africa then turned into the Slave trade, which began on the coast of Africa. Africa = Black Slavery (99% of the slaves you would meet are black Africans that are furious) Africans that came to North America or Britain, then became a part of the emancipated educated Africans in Race to them became important, nationalizing to them was life. “Negro” – Latin Africa has a distinct race, which gave African Americans a sense of nationalizing Pan-Africanists – Western educated, believed in redemption of African, conversion of “Christianity” - “We are Africa” From the 19 thcentury, colonial conquest happens in Africa Their sense of identity has been reinforced Perspectives of the Islamic World Parts of Africa are fully integrated anciently with Muslims Europeans were not the first outsiders who discovered Africa, Arabs were the first, people who Across the Sahara dessert up the Nile, - Gold in West Africa - Salt trade They are bringing Islam with them Sahel, the region of Savannah, merging away into the desert, being increasingly Islam. Ghana and Mali, conversed to Islam (European Middle Ages) Hausa, great city state Djenne in Mali, great Mosque th The University at Timbuktu founded in the 14 century West African Rulers will make his way to Mecca West Africa Becoming a Muslim land Heavy Trade in slaves Swahili Coast “People of the Coast” – Wonderful lagoons, rivers, cities being established on small islands Kenya to South Africa (East Coast) Arab cities on the coast were highly sophisticated, goods from China and Indian, traded with many people, Ivory and Gold. All destroyed when the Portuguese took over the coast, they took on the trade as their own. HI229- September 12, 2013 9/17/2013 8:31:00 AM Maghreb/Maghrib – Land of the West When the Arabs conquered North Africa, it was all Christian territory. Colonized by Rome. When the European’s came to colonize Africa, then they whipped the entire Christianized North. Egypt and Ethiopia have much of the Christian population. Copts are what Christians were called. Ethiopian rulers believe that they came from King Solomon and the Queen of Sheba. A period in 1970s, the Ethiopian churches took a huge hit during the revolution. Monophysites, Christ is of a single nature, Christ is God. In the West, Christ is God and man, dual nature. The Copts might be the right kind of Christians but the wrong type. Portuguese did their best to convert the Copts in Ethiopia to Orthodox Christians. Prestir John. Africa has a large Muslim presence going back 1000 years and ancient Christianity as well. Muslim World In Africa No trace of Racism in the Koran Nubian and Ethiopian decent, who descended from slave mothers (ancient slavery) Muslims and Christians had something in common, their contact with Africans was through the slave trade Sub Sahara Africa that is where the salves came from, that is how a Muslim saw an African. Example: Sudan (Means: Land of the Blacks) North makes the South appear as slaves. (North: Muslims, South: “Black Africans”) “Black Africa means slaves” A matter of paganism, not being Muslim. In terms of Sharii law, you may not enslave a Muslim, but you may enslave an unbeliever Cultural distain for Black Africans, not rulers or traders/teachers, Rulers of these areas are trading. They are very ordinary and not highly civilized. Slaves could be extremely important state once they have converted to Muslim. Becoming a Soldier could be one of the most honorable things. This is what Europeans encountered, large kingdoms, sophistication of African kingdoms Who should be included as African? Geographical? Racial terms? Black? Religious terms? Many historians who call themselves Africans deal with Sub Sahara Africa. A divide in half – (Non Black and Black) Africa is distinctively black th White settlers came in the early 19 century to create the Cape Colony, now known as Johannesburg which is very industrialized, a separate subject from Black Africa Madagascar is a part of Africa, but usually ignored, in that country they talk in Malagasy. (Boneo is a Austronesian language where Malagasy is derived from) Black Diaspora? What about them? Them who became slaves? Are they apart of Africa? Or are they something else? A real problem in easily describing who Africans are How does Africa fit into the world? How does its history fit into World History? How far in the course of African History has been derives from Africans themselves. Slavery? Colonialism? Recipient? Victims to what outsiders have said? When was it first taught in Universities? - Was taught as a Colonial History. th Wasn’t taught till the Second half of the 20 century Early Academics, were trying to explode some of the myths about Africa, showing that there has been development, and that they are not just barbarians, Africa seems marginal to world affairs. Africa by the late 19 thcentury was all-colonial. Africa is not by any chance a major investment to the rest of the world. China has been majorly involved in Africa. Moved in for economic reasons and exploitation They’re investments does not have political strings attached Africa is still a supplier of raw materials. Continent is still very poor (malnutrition, corruption, and conflicts) The continent is broken, it is not marginal to major world affairs, that doesn’t work. “Afro-pestilent” Romantic Image of Africa Goes back centuries, the Romans thought it was the romantic land of wonders Primitive Africa, unchanging, exotic tribes, headdresses, cannibalism and Human sacrifice The wild” and dangerous animals, desserts, rainforests, highlands “Travel brochure Africa” African Renaissance – rebirth of Africa Idolized and romanticized as well THE GARDEN OF EDEN How to balance all of these different views? How do you do it without being an advertising agency? Dynamics of African relationships within Africa Popular perceptions of Africa = “Other” Can’t put an emphasis on isolating Africa They are connected to the world Syncretic One of the problems is that till recently, who’s been writing the history of Africa? The Europeans – Western History, in the western tradition, where we have very clear senses of what covers evidences, what are good sources, interpretations, and explaining history in certain terms. How would an African write their history? It would be very different. The 1960s was a time of independence for most of Africa, which is why many historians/professors focused on political history. – Conquered, colonized, and achieved independence Environment and Population of Africa Demography (population) Africa is a hostile and harsh environment, most ancient continents, water supplies are hugely problematic, deserts, jungles, insects and wild animals that make it hard to live there It is a constant battle against drought, bush fires, and disease. Makes it hard for survival. Africa was enormously under populated The population of Africa has grown enormously in the last 200 years, but it is still a harsh continent. Which makes it hard to live there. HI229- September 17, 2013 9/17/2013 8:31:00 AM ** Read notions of Africa for basis of discussion on Tuesday- What is Africa? Physical profile of Africa  Not as extreme topography  There are mountain ranges  Down great rift valley down east of Ethiopia as far as the great lakes  Drakensberg- mountain range in Africa  There is snow in Africa in the Aptos mountains  There are a few high mountain peaks (Kilimanjaro)- this is fast losing its snow cap due to global warming  Core of the continent is now Ethiopia (Ethiopian plateau) and is dominated by flatlands and agriculture  This plateau has limited access to the resources of Africa  You’re trying to reach and export the produces of Africa and the steeply rising profile has made this a problem  You have rivers- which in North America are great for trade but in Africa- many parts down the east parts of Africa there are estuary and lagoons- therefore only small ships can come through here  Great long beaches but no easy access from the beaches to the interior of Africa because of sandbanks- this makes major trade not easy  The Niger River is very shallow and full of sandbanks and lagoons- very difficult for access of larger ships  Another problem is that rivers drains from the mountains of the interior downwards which means those rivers are going down enormous waterfalls  If youre trying to go up the congo river there are enormous cataracts  Cataract- waterfall (series of falling) Environmental Zones  The great equatorial forests along coast of Congo  The congo rainforest with rivers and train going through the African jungle  North of the forests there are woodland and savannah grassland  Glaciation will cause the mountains to flat top  down southwest is the Kalahari desert which is another similar desert  further south you will reach the karoo which is very dry which is good for sheep and lamb  coastal regions it rains in winter and summers are very dry where rest of the continent is the opposite  most of Africa is either desert or savannah  these are tough ecological zones- not like Europe and north America- much of it is very difficult for human habitation  the river in flood, Kenya- very dangerous with soil erosion (brown water) and crocodiles etc.  soil erosion is a major problem when going for deforestation the floods are greater and in many areas the natural forests have been cut down and floods are much greater- becomes a very big issue Endemic Diseases  besides the climate in Africa- one should consider the endemic diseases  some of the worst diseases are carried by the insect population  most of Africa unless the highlands  winter is not cold in Africa- no great fluctuation in temperature  insect life is never zapped and carries on every year no matter what  what caused endemic diseases to spread so much more in the last 100 years?  The railroads- human activity- steamers- roads- automobiles- trucks- airplanes  Once trade is opened up so largely in the continent, these diseases catch rides all over the place basically  Thanks to the mobility in the last 150 years which is an aspect of globalization, has also allowed these diseases to leave Africa as well
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