PS270 Lectures 5 and 6 notes

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Wilfrid Laurier University
Christine Zaza

Tuesday October 16 2012h Lecture 6 Demonstration: close your eyes until I ask you to open, how much time passed? Persuasion - Routes - Elements of persuasion - Persuasion principles and techniques - Resisting persuasion - Cults Routes to persuasion Two routes- processing more likely to occur when: - Central route: • high personal relevance • high need for cognition • able to pay attention • more effective when sad or neutral mood • communicator speaks at normal rate - peripheral route • low personal relevance • low need for cognition • use of heuristics • difficult to pay attention (distracted) • positive mood Two routes- effects on attitudes - Central route: • maintain over time • more resistant to counter-persuasion • strong attitude • predictive of behaviour - peripheral route taken when: • weak attitude • susceptible to counter-arguments • not predictive of behaviour Steps involved in processing messages via the central route: - Pay attention  understand  believe  remember  behave accordingly, take action Processing the peripheral route - reliance on • heuristics • incidental cues (ex. Attractiveness, credibility, length of message) Self-persuasion - uses central route - inducing hypocrisy (create cognitive dissonance) through mindfulness (ex. Aronson’s short shower study) Examples: Name That Route st - 1 : peripheral - 2 : peripheral - 3 : central th - 4 : peripheral then central Elements of persuasion- WHO: - The communicator • Credibility (perceived expertise, perceived trustworthy) • Attractiveness and liking (voice overs are usually males voices) - The message content • Cultural attitudes • Reason vs. emotion  Effects of using fear? Does it work?  (*KNOW THIS use enough fear to interest the person but not too much fear and must add what to do to avoid it)  Subliminal messages – do they work? (Subliminal perception vs. subliminal persuasion) they sometimes work but only in a highly controlled lab environment- doesn’t translate to real life (no good basis on subliminal persuasion) • Discrepancy (advocate a view that is far away from where the person is right now) • One-sided (only gives on side of the story) vs. two-sided appeals (acknowledge the counter argument- better off using this when people know the other side) • Primacy vs. recency (whether or not there is a time gap) Elements of persuasion- HOW - The channel (more peripheral) • Fluency • Repetition • Active vs passive (asking questions maybe.. engage audience) • Personal vs media (we are more influenced by our personal friends and family, much more than media) Elements of persuasion- TO WHOM - Audience • Age • What are they thinking  Need for cognition (like health related messages- cancer?)  Forewarning (if you tell them ahead of time what you’re going to talk about then you have time to think about counter-arguing)  Distraction from counter-arguing (like pretty pictures and sounds and stuff…)  Uninvolved (easier to catch a peripheral route in they are uninvolved) Examples- identify elements of persuasion - Communicator - Message - Channel - audience 1 add: - assume credibility because of the WHO (host of jeopardy)  perception - likable or attractiveness nd rd 2 and 3 and forth add: - subliminal messages of Disney: perception  sex YouTube video 1: - “Winston tastes good like a cigarette should”  very fluid and sticks in your head, repetition YouTube video 2: - Marlboro cigarettes commercial  manly man (very specific audience/ target (MEN)) , central because you are processing the lifestyle YouTube video 3 - Old spice commercial  attractiveness, likeliness, audience is women, selling sex (an image), hooking emotion (peripheral views) YouTube video 4 - Mouse add about cheese (strong cheese)  selling strength of the cheese (worth fighting back from the dead for) YouTube video 5 - Public service announcement about smoking  (it will suck the life right out of you) they use fear (moderate amount) *EXAM: will give an add and we can back up our argument of what we see in the adds persuasion Persuasion principles and techniques Mindlessness: The “photocopy study” Request condition 1) Request only (compliance 60%) 2) Request + valid reason (compliance 94%) 3) Request + “placebic reason” (compliance 93%)people hear “because” which is associated with a reason (supposedly credible) The reciprocity principle - Ex Christmas card experiment: wrote Christmas cards to random people and everyone wrote one back - The basic rule: repay in kind what another person has given to you - A universal norm - Rules is adaptive for society - Rule can be exploited: make someone feel obligated to do something back from someone • Favors • Reciprocal concessions (I give something up then you give something up “since you did this… I’ll do this) - Ex. Hare Krishna (give free gifts- they expect you to do something in return) Exploiting reciprocity with favors - The free sample • Applies even to uninvited favors • Begins with obligation to receive • Can trigger unfair exchanges • Psychological discomfort/ social shame Exploiting reciprocity with “reciprocal concessions” - Door-in-the-face: big and unreasonable request then ask for the small reasonable one - Why does it work? • Obligation to return a concession • Perceptual contrast - Scarcity principle: “available for this week only – their going quickly – only so many copies” The commitment- consistency principle - Once we make a choice, we feel pressure to behave consistency with it - Strategies based on this principle (“start small strategies”) can elicit “mindless” compliance • Food in the door technique • low ball technique (not very ethical) Foot-in door study by Freedman and Fraser Request condition 1) No prior contact (17%) 2) Prior driving request (76%) 3) Prior beautiful request (50%) Six persuasion principles (Cialdini) - Authority: “9 out of 10 dentists agree” - Liking: Tupperware party - Social proof: “your neighbours donated” - Reciprocity: Christmas card experiment- free sample - Consistency: post-Christmas toy purchase (ferbies) - Scarcity: “available for a limited time only” the shopping channel Low ball: - Low ball (caught by surprise) vs. foot in the door (asked to make a small request first) Other persuasion techniques 1. An appeal to – or create of- needs 2. Social and prestige suggestion 3. Loaded words
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