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Midterm

Midterm 2 Review.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PS270
Professor
Melany Banks
Semester
Fall

Description
Midterm review- Chapter 5 - Persuasion 10/31/2012 7:53:00 PM What Paths Lead to Persuasion  Central Route o Occurs when interested people focus on the arguments and respond with favourable thoughts o If arguments are strong and compelling, persuasion is likely o If the message only contains weak arguments, thoughtful people will notice that the arguments aren’t very compelling and will counter-argue  The Peripheral Route o Occurs when people are influenced by incidental cues, such as a speaker’s attractiveness o Focusing on cues that trigger acceptance without much thinking o Visual images as peripheral cues  Different Routes for Different Purposes o Central route processing can lead to more enduring change than does the peripheral route  When people are thinking carefully and mentally elaborating on issues, they rely not just on the strength of persuasive appeals but on their own thoughts in response as well.  Think deeply -> attitude change, resist attack, and influence behaviour o Persuasion via the peripheral route  Often produces superficial and temporary attitude change  Changing attitudes is easier than changing behaviour Route Audience Processing Persuasion Central Analytical and High effort Cogent motivated Elaborate arguments evoke Agree or counter- enduring argue agreement Peripheral Not analytical or Low effort, Use Cues trigger involved peripheral cues liking and Rule of thumb acceptance but heuristics often only temp. The Elements of Persuasion  The Communicator o Who is saying something affects how an audience receives it o Credibility – Believability. A credible communicator is perceived as both expert and trustworthy  A doctor rather than a random person  Perceived expertise & Perceived trustworthiness  Sleeper effect - A delayed impact of a message; occurs when we remember the message but forget a reason for discounting it o Attractiveness and liking  Attractiveness: having qualities that appeal to an audience. An appealing communicator is most persuasive on matters of subjective preference  The Message Content o Reason vs emotion  Campaigning in support of world hunger relief. Would it be best to itemize your arguments and cite an array of impressive statistic’s, or would it be more effective to presenting an emotional approach  It depends on the audience. Well educated people or analytical people are more responsive to rational appeals  The effect of good feelings  Messages also become more persuasive through association with good feelings  Good feelings enhance persuasion  The effect of arousing fear  Messages can also be effective by evoking negative emotions  When the fear pertains to a pleasurable activity, the result often is not behavioural change by denial.  These messages are more effective if you lead people not only to fear the severity and likelihood of a threatened eve but also to perceive a solution and feel capable of implementing it o Discrepancy  Disagreement causes discomfort and discomfort prompts people to change their opinions  Greater disagreement will produce less change o One sided vs two sided appeals  How to deal with opposing arguments  Acknowledging the opposing arguments might confuse the audience and weaken the case  On the other hand, a message might seem fairer and be more disarming if it recognizes the oppositions arguments  Two sided is more persuasive and enduring if people are aware of opposing arguments o Primacy vs Recency  Primacy effect: other things being equal, information presented first usually has the more influence  Recency effect: information presented last sometimes has the more influence. Recency effects are less common that primacy effects  Forgetting creates the recency effect:  When enough time separates the two messages  When the audience commits itself soon after the second message  The Channel of Communication o For persuasion to occur, there must be communication, and for communication to occur there must be a channel:  A face-to-face appeal, a written sign or document, a media advertisement or some other method o Channel of communication: the way the message is delivered o Active experience or passive reception  Persuasive speaker must deliver a message that not only gets attention but also is understandable, convincing, memorable, and compelling  Passively received appeals are not always futile  Exposure to unfamiliar stimuli breeds liking  Repetition can make things believable o Personal vs Media Influence  Major influence on us is not from the media by our own contact with people  Two-step flow of communication: the process by which media influence often occurs through opinion leaders, who in turn influence others  The Audience o People with moderate self-esteem are easiest to influence o Age  Life cycle explanation: Attitudes change as people grow older.  General explanation: Attitudes do not change; older people largely hold onto the attitudes they adopted when they were young.  Attitudes are different from those now being adopted by young people today  Generation gap  Evidence mostly supports the general explanation  Adolescent and early-adulthood experiences are formative partly because they make deep and lasting impressions o Thoughtfulness  In central route, what is critical is not the message but the responses it evokes in a person’s mind  Counter-arguing – anticipate others arguments and develop a list of arguments to counter every argument they might make  Distraction disarms counter-arguing – distracting people with something that attracts their attention just enough to stop counter-arguing  Uninvolved audiences use peripheral cues  Need for cognition: the motivation to think and analyze. Assessed by agreement with items such as “the notion of thinking abstractly is appealing to me,” and disagreement with items such as “ I only think as hard as I have to” Six Persuasion Principles: Robert Cialdini Principle Application Authority: People defer to credible Establish your expertise; Identify experts problems you have solved and people you have served Liking: People respond more Win friends and influence people. affirmatively to those they like Create bonds based on similar interests, praise freely Social proof: People allow the Use “peer power” – have respected example of others to validate how to others lead the way think, fell, and act Reciprocity: People feel obliged to Be generous with your time and repay in kind what they’ve received resources. What goes around comes around Consistency: People ten to honour Have others write or voice their their public commitments intentions. Don’t say “please do this” instead, elicit a “yes” by asking Scarcity: People prize what’s scarce Highlight genuinely exclusive information or opportunities Extreme Persuasion: How do Cults Indoctrinate  Hindsight analysis: uses persuasion principles as categories for explaining, after the fact, a troubling social phenomenon  Explaining why people believe something says nothing about the truth of their beliefs  Cult – a group typically characterized by 1) the distinctive ritual of its devotion to a god or a person 2) isolation from the surrounding “evil” culture. 3) a charismatic leader o New religious movements  Attitudes Follow Behaviour o Compliance breeds acceptance  New converts are quickly made active members of the team. Behavioural rituals, public recruitment, and fund- raising strengthen the initiates’ identities as members  The greater the personal commitment, the more the need to justify it o The foot-in-the-door phenomenon  Monetary offerings are first voluntary, then is was mandatory  Start little and increase commitment  Persuasive Elements o The communicator  Successful cults have a charismatic leader  Trust is another aspect of credibility  People are mostly recruited by the people they trust o The message  Vivid, emotional messages and the warmth and acceptance with which the group showers them can be strikingly appealing o The audience  Recruits are often young, under 25  Less educated  Group Effects o Cult separates members from their previous social support system and isolates them with other cult members. o Group offers identity and defines reality How can Persuasion be Resisted  Strengthening personal commitment o Challenging beliefs  When committed people were attacked strongly enough to cause them to react, but not so strongly as to overwhelm them, they become even more committed o Developing counter-arguments  Attitude inoculation: Exposing people to weak attacks on their attitudes so that when stronger attacks come they will have refutations available  Even weak arguments will prompt counter-arguments  Cialdini and he colleagues agreed that appropriate counter-arguments are a great way to resist persuasion, but they wondered how to bring them to mind in response to an opponent’s ads  Inoculation Programs o Inoculating children against peer pressure to smoke  Alfred McAlister had high-school students inoculate students in grade 7 against peer pressures to smoke. After several of these sessions during the seventh grade and eighth grades, the inoculated students were half as likely to begin smoking  Anti smoking and drug education programs apply other persuasion principles. They use attractive peers to communicate information. They trigger the students own cognitive processing and they get students to make a public commitment o Inoculating children against influence of advertising  Children under eight, have trouble distinguishing commercials from programs and fail to grasp their persuasive intent , trust television advertising rather indiscriminately, and desire and badger their parents for advertised products  Implications o The best way to build resistance to brainwashing probably is not just stronger indoctrination into one’s current beliefs. Conformity- Chapter 6 10/31/2012 7:53:00 PM What is Conformity  A change in behaviour or belief to accord with others  It is not just acting as other people act; it is also being affected by how they act  Compliance: Conformity that involves publicly acting in accord with social pressure while privately disagreeing  Obedience: Acting in accord with a direct order  Acceptance: Conformity that involves both acting and believing in accord with social pressure What are the Classic Conformity and Obedience Studies  Sherif’s Studies of Norm Formation o Bridges between culture’s power to create and perpetuate arbitrary norms and processes of conformity o Participants were seated in a dark room, 5 meters in front of them was a pinpoint of light. At first nothing happened then for a few seconds it moved then disappeared  Participants needed to guess ho far it moved, the dark room gave no way to judge distance so it remains uncertain  The next few days they brought back the people and put them in a room in groups of 3’s. the second and third day are all different numbers amongst the 3 th people but keep getting closer until the 4 day when people come to an agreement o Sherif took advantage of the Autokinetic phenomenon: Self motion. The apparent movement of a stationary point of light in the dark. Perhaps you have experienced this when thinking you have spotted a moving satellite in the sky: only to realize later that it was a isolated star  Asch’s Studies of Group Pressure o Less ambiguous o Line test one person with 5 other confederates  Asked which line matched the standard line that was given  ¾ of the people conformed and gave the wrong answer at least once  Milgram’s Obedience Studies o Study on what happens when the demands of authority clash with the demands of conscience o Teacher learner study  Punishment was delivering shocks to the learner when he got the answer wrong  Confederate was learner and teacher was a participant  Teacher watches the learner being hooked up to the electrodes and strapped into the chair  The confederate would yell and scream for help and the experimenter would try and force the participant to keep going on with the experiment  Over 60% of the participants obeyed the experimenter and kept going to the 450 volt shock  What Breeds Obedience o Milgram examined the conditions that breed obedience  The victim’s distance  Participants acted with greater obedience and least compassion when the learners could not be seen  When the learner was in the same room only 40% obeyed to 450 volts  30% obeyed when they were required to put the learners hand into contact with a shock plate  people depersonalize other people and are able to be nasty to them but once there is someone who has become personalized people will act compassionately towards them  Closeness and legitimacy of the authority  Physical presence of the experimenter also affected obedience  Commands by telephone – obedience dropped 21%  When the one making the request was physically close the compliance increased  The authority must be perceived as legitimate  Institutional Authority  People obeyed more at Yale than they did in Bridgeport in Milgram’s experiment  Liberating effects of group influence  These experiments give us a negative view on conformity. But conformity can also be good  People rushing into the world trade center  Reflections on the classic studies o Behaviour and attitudes  These experiments vividly illustrated the principal that attitudes fail to determine behaviour  Used the foot in the door technique  Compliance breeds acceptance o The power of the situation  Immediate situational forces are powerful  In trying to break social constraints, we realize how strong they are  Under the sway of evil forces, even nice people are sometimes corrupted as they construct moral rationalizations for immoral behaviour  When good people, faced with dire circumstances, commit reprehensible acts  Summary of Classic Studies Topic Researcher Method Real-life Experience Norm Formation Sherif Assessing Interpreting events suggestibility differently after regarding hearing from others; seeming appreciating a tasty movement of food that others love light Conformity Asch Agreemen
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