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Chapter 9-12 Final review.docx

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Wilfrid Laurier University
Melany Banks

Aggression 3/19/2013 10:56:00 AM What is Aggression  A physical or verbal behaviour intended to hurt someone o Excluding unintentional harm, such as unavoidable side effects of helping someone  Social aggression and silent aggression o Displays of rage – social o Stalking – silent  Hostile aggression: aggression driven by anger and performed as an end in itself – goal is to injure  Instrumental aggression: aggression that is a means to some other end – goal to injure only as a means to some other end Theories of Aggression  Aggression as a Biological Phenomenon o Instinct theory  Freud – human aggression springs from self-destructive impulse. It redirects toward others the energy of a primitive death urge  Lorenz – aggression is adaptive rather than self- destructive  Both agreed that aggressive energy is instinctive behaviour: innate, unlearned behaviour pattern exhibited by all members of a species  Fails to account for the variation in aggressiveness  Buss and Shackelford – aggressive behaviour was a strategy for gaining resources, defending against attack, intimidating or eliminating male rivals. Helps explain the high levels of male-male aggression o Neural Influences  Found neural systems in the brain that facilitate aggression  Prefrontal cortex is 14% less active than normal in murderers o Genetic Influences  Long-term studies found that the recipe for aggressive behaviour combines a gene that alters neurotransmitter balance with childhood maltreatment o Biochemical Influences  Alcohol  Enhances aggression by reducing peoples self- awareness, by focusing their attention on a provocation, and by people’s mentally associating alcohol with aggression  It deindividuates, and disinhibits  Testosterone  Low Serotonin  Aggression as a Response to Frustration o Frustration-aggression theory: frustration triggers a readiness to aggress o Frustration: The blocking of goal-directed behaviour o Displacement: the redirection of aggression to a target other than the source of the frustration. Generally, the new target is a safer or more socially acceptable  Berkowitz theorized that frustration produces anger, and emotional readiness to aggress. Anger arises when someone who frustrates us could have chosen to act otherwise o Relative Deprivation: The perception that one is less well off than others to whom one compares oneself  Frustration is compounded when we compare ourselves to others  Aggression as Learned Social Behaviour o The Rewards of Aggression  We learn that aggression pays off: Aggressive hockey players get more goals, ect.  In these cases aggression is instrumental in achieving certain rewards o Observation Learning  Social Learning Theory  The theory that we can learn social behaviour by observing and imitating and by being rewarded and punished  Bandura – believed that we learn aggression not only by experiencing its pay offs but also by observing others  Aggression is transmitted to new generations What are Some Influences on Aggression  Aversive Incidents o Pain  Heightens aggressiveness in humans  Berkowitz – any aversive event can incite an emotional outburst o Heat  Correlations between temperature and aggression don’t prove it.  Hot temps in lab do increase arousal and hostile thoughts and feelings o Attacks  Being attacked or insulted  Arousal o Some experiments show that increase adrenaline in men can cause them to be more aggressive. Others show that being physical stirred up does intensify just about any emotion o Sexual arousal and other forms of arousal can amplify one another. o A frustrating, hot, or insulting situation heightens arousal. When id does, the arousal, combined with thoughts and feelings, may form a recipe for aggressive behaviour  Aggression Cues o Guns prime hostile thoughts and punitive judgments  Especially when the gun is seen as a weapon rather than a recreational item o Aversive situation: - Hostile thoughts, Angry feeling, Arousal = Aggressive reactions  Media Influences: Pornography and Sexual Violence o Distorted perceptions of sexual reality  “rape myth” o Aggression against women  Correlational studies  As porn became more widely available during the 60’s and 70’s the rate of reported rapes sharply increased – except in area where porn was controlled  Experimental studies  Media awareness education  Media Influences: Television o Catharsis: emotional release. The catharsis view of aggression is that aggressive drive is reduced when one “releases” aggressive energy, either by acting aggressively or by fantasizing aggression  watching violent drama enables people to release their pent-up hostilities. o Exposure to violence leads to increased aggression o Exposure to media violence can increase the likelihood of aggressive and violent behaviour in both immediate and long term consequences o Playing violent video games:  Increases arousal  Increases aggressive thinking  Increases aggressive feelings  Increases aggressive behaviours  Decreases prosocial behaviours o Repeated violent game-playing: Aggressive beliefs and attitudes, Aggressive perceptions, Aggressive expectations, Aggressive behaviour scripts, Aggressive desensitization = Increased aggressive personality  Group Influences o Groups can amplify aggressive reactions partly by diffusing responsibility and polarizing actions How can Aggression be Reduced  Catharsis o We can purge emotions by experiencing them and that viewing the classic tragedies, enable a catharsis of pity and fear. o Some therapists encourage people to ventilate suppressed aggression by acting it out o Bushman – “Venting to reduce anger is like using gasoline to put out a fire.”  Even after a war, a nations murder rate tends to jump o Retaliation may in the short run, may reduce tension and even provide pleasure, but in the long run, it fuels more negative feelings o Silent sulking allows us to continue reciting our grievances as we conduct conversations in our head  Social Learning Approach o Aversive experiences such as frustrated expectations and personal attacks predispose hostile aggression. It is wise to refrain from planting false, unreachable expectations in people minds. o Anticipated rewards and costs influence instrumental aggression, this suggests that we should reward cooperative, non-aggressive behaviour. o Punishing the aggressor is lees consistently effective o Suggests to control aggression by counteracting the factors that provoke it: by reducing aversive stimulation, by rewarding and modeling non-aggression, and by eliciting reactions incompatible with aggression Attraction and Intimacy 3/19/2013 10:56:00 AM What Leads to Friendship and Attraction  Proximity: Geographical nearness o Proximity is one of the most powerful predictions of whether any two people are friends o Proximity can also breed hostility, but far more often, it kindles liking  Interaction  “functional distance” – how often peoples paths cross  We become friends with those who we see a lot  With repeated exposure to someone, our infatuation may fix on almost anyone who has roughly similar characteristics and who reciprocates our affection  Anticipation of interaction  Proximity enables people to discover commonalities and exchange rewards  Merely anticipating interaction also boosts liking  Mere exposure  Tendency for novel stimuli to be liked more or rated more positively after the rater has been repeatedly exposed to them  Familiarity fosters fondness  Physical Attractiveness o Attractiveness and dating  Women more than men say they would prefer a mate who is homely and warm over one who is attractive and cold  In studies men and women were more likely to want to go on a second date with someone they thought was attractive o The matching phenomenon  People pair off with people who are about as attractive as they are  People tend to select friends and especially to marry those who are a “good match” not only to their level of intelligence but also to their level of attractiveness o The physical-attractiveness stereotype  The presumption that physically attractive people possess other socially desirable traits as well: what is beautiful is good  First impressions: Attractiveness probably most affects first impressions o Who is attractive  Attractiveness is whatever the people of any given time or place find attractive  Evolution and attraction: human preference for attractive partners in terms of reproductive strategy  Beauty signals biologically important information: health, youth, and fertility  Social comparison: what is attractive to you also depends on your comparison standards  Attractiveness of those we love: not only do we perceive people as likeable, we also perceive likeable people as attractive.  The more in love a women is with a man, the more physically attractive she finds him  And the more in love people are, the less attractive they find all others of the opposite sex.  Similarity vs Complementarity o Do birds of a feather flock together  The greater the similarity between husband and wife, the happier they are and the less likely they are to divorce  Dissimilarity breeds dislike: we have a bias (false consensus bias) toward assuming that others share our attitudes  If dissimilar attitudes pertain to our strong moral convictions, we dislike and distance ourselves from them more  Dissimilar attitudes depress liking more than similar attitudes enhance it o Do opposites attract  The needs of someone who is outgoing and domineering would naturally complement those of someone who is shy and submissive.  When you’re feeling blue, someone with a bubbly personality can be aggravating  Complementarity (supposed tendency in a relationship between two people, for each to complete what is missing in the other) may evolve as a relationship progress. Yet people seem slightly more prone to like and to marry those whose needs and personalities are similar  Liking those who like us o Discovering that an appealing someone really likes you seems to awaken romantic feelings o Those told that certain others like or admire them usually feel a reciprocal affection o Whether we are judging ourselves or others, negative information carries more weight because, being less usual, it grabs more attention o Attribution: if praise clearly violates what we know is true, we lose respect for the flatterer and wonder whether the compliment springs from ulterior motives o People with high self-esteem attribute more abstract significance to complements and they feel more secure in their relationships than those with low self-esteem o Aronson speculated that constant approval can loose value  Relationship Rewards o Attraction is in the eye of the beholder o Reward theory of attraction: the theory that we like those whose behaviour is rewarding to is or whom we associate with rewarding events o We like those that we associate good feelings with What is Love  Loving is more complex than liking and thus more difficult to measure  Passionate Love o A state of intense longing for union with another.  Absorbed with one another  Feel ecstatic at attaining their partners love and they are disconsolate on losing it o Passionate love is what you feel when you love someone and when you are in love with them o Two-factor theory of emotion: arousal + its label = emotion o Men fall in love more readily and they fall out of love more slowly and are less likely than women to break up a premarital romance  Companionate Love o The longer a relationship endures the fewer its emotional ups and downs o Companionate love is the affection we feel for those with whom our lives are deeply intertwined o It is lower key than passionate love What Enable
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