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PS 270 social psych concise.docx

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Anne Wilson

PS 270 social psych Egocentric bias- we think we did more because things that we personally do get processed more Principle of scarcity: if you limit how many things are available, people want it more Self-concept: cognitive beliefs and knowledge we attribute to ourselves Core self-concept: tends to be relatively stationary Self-complexity: if we have many ideas of our identity, little overlap between identities this is a high level of self-complexity. Self-complexity helps buffer against adversity, if I do badly in school it seems ok because I’m a friend, musician etc. Self-esteem: emotional evaluation of the self Social distinctiveness is often related to the current minority identity Schemas: mental templates Collectivist cultures: focus on harmony and fitting in, modesty, duty - We are bad at predicting our own actions, we can better predict other’s action than our own., to guess our future it is best to look at our past Impact bias: misinterpreting the amount a circumstance will affect us, we tend to equalize out our happiness level Looking glass self: using others as a mirror for perceiving ourselves Private audiences: evaluating ourselves through other people’s eyes Social comparison: evaluating one’s abilities and opinions by comparing oneself to others Social identity: the part of who we are that comes from group membership Self-schema: beliefs about self that organize and guide our processing of self-relevant information Self-reference effect: remember information better when related to ourselves Possible selves: images of what we dream of or dread becoming in the future Learned helplessness: hopelessness/resignation learned when a human perceives no control over repeated bad events. Self-serving bias: the tendency to perceive oneself favourably, self-serving bias in attributions: when we succeed its due to skill, when we fail it is due to circumstance - Illusions of superiority: people generally feel that they are better than average - Revisionist memory: feeling we are continually improving, we judge past selves as worse to make current selves feel better False consensus effect: tendency to overestimate the amount of people that agree with our opinions False uniqueness: the tendency to underestimate the number of people that have similar talents or successful behaviors like our own Self-handicapping: protecting one’s self-image with behaviours that create a handy excuse for failure Self-monitoring: being attuned to the way one presents one-self in social situations and adjusting one’s behaviors to create the desired impression Ch 3 Belief perseverance: persistence of one’s initial conceptions despite reasons it could be false Misinformation effect: incorporating “misinformation” into one’s memory of the event after receiving misleading information afterward Overconfidence phenomenon: the tendency to overestimate the accuracy of our beliefs, incompetence actually feeds overconfidence. Confirmation bias: a tendency to search for information that confirms one’s perceptions Heuristics: a thinking strategy that enables quick and efficient judgments Representativeness heuristic: the tendency to presume despite contrary odds that someone/something belongs to a particular group if resembling a particular member Availability heuristic: judges the likelihood of things in terms of their availability in memory Counterfactual thinking: imagining alternative scenarios and outcomes that might’ve happened Illusory correlation: perception of a relationship where none exists or a stronger one than what exists Illusion of control: people believe they have more control for uncontrollable situations Regression toward the mean: extreme scores are likely to be more average Attributions: help make predictions, gives a sense of control, how people explain other’s behavior Misattribution: mistakenly attributing a behavior to the wrong cause Dispositional (internal) attribution: attributing events to a person’s behavior Situational (external) attribution: attributing events to a circumstance, their environment, the situation Correspondence Inference theory (jones & davis’s): we make an attribution about behaviors to their personality trait, may also make inferences afterward about circumstance if there are more noticeable factors. We determine factors such as free choice, non-common effect, social desirability in a situation. Covariation model (Kelly): people want a rational attribution, we calculate most plausible reason possible causes such as: the person, the stimulus/situation, combination, circumstances. Three types of information assessed: consistency, distinctiveness, consensus. STI (Spontaneous trait inference): takes about 1/10 of a second to make about someone’s personality Fundamental attribution error (correspondence bias): the tendency for people to attribute other’s behavior to disposition, when we watch another person we fail to notice the environment Game show effect: the questioner appears smarter because they know the answers (gilbert et al.) correspondence error: maybe people will slow down and take the time to think about circumstance when making attributions when they have a lower stress/cognitive load, people only had slightly lower amount of bias. People pay more attention if they will be held accountable (accountability) or motivated with reward (motivation). Causal attribution: reason why something happened -camera perspective changed people’s opinion of guilt -as the once-visible person recedes from memory we then attribute their actions more to environment Behavioural confirmation: a type of self-fulfilling prophecy whereby people’s social expectations lead them to act in ways that cause others to confirm their expectations -we have tendency to over time develop observer memories of ourselves, past selves seem further away -we see our past selves as other people and we make the fundamental attribution bias toward ourselves as well Weiner’s model: causes for success and failure, why people make certain attributions. Locus of control, stability of attribution, controllability. (internal vs external, stable vs unstable) -individual attributions can change the outcome (learned helplessness) Ch 9 Altruism- helping others Altruism: a motive to increase another’s welfare without conscious regard for one’s self-interest Social responsibility norm: an expectation that people will help those dependent on them Social-exchange theory: theory that human interactions are transactions aiming to maximize one’s rewards and minimize one’s costs Benevolence: both donor and recipient gain Reciprocity norm: expectation that people will help, not hurt, those who have helped them Egoism: increase one’s own welfare Evolution: drive to reproduce our genes Kin selection: evolution has selected altruism toward one’s close relatives for survival of similar genes -benefit to recipient B, cost to altruist C, degree of relatedness between themselves and recipient r rB>C Hamilton’s rule -the closer the person looks like to you the more likely you are to help them Reciprocal altruism: they will help you if you help them, symbiotic Empathy-altruism hypothesis: empathy leads to helping for purely altruistic reasons Factors of empathy- individual differences, similarity, closeness/ vividness, mimicry Bystander effect: a person is less likely to provide help when there are other bystanders -being in a rush plays a huge part on whether people will help Pluralistic ignorance: false impression of how others are thinking or feeling based on outward appearance, occurs when a situation is ambiguous, relevance to bystander effect Compassion fatigue: overwhelmed with people asking for help -people more likely to help if they see others help as well Door in the face technique: person that turns down a large request more likely to accept the same person offering a smaller one Moral exclusion: perception of certain individuals or groups as outside the boundary within which applies moral values and rules of fairness Moral inclusion: regarding others as within one’s circle of moral concern Overjustification effect: result of bribing people to do what they already like doing, they see their action as externally controlled rather than intrinsically appealing Ch4 Components of attitudes: affect, cognition, behavior -Attitudes predict behavior: when outside influences on our reported attitudes are minimal, other influences on behavior is minimized, when attitudes are specific to the behavior, when are attitudes strong/accessible: how quick it comes to mind, knowledge, importance, individual differences -self-perception theory: we may observe our own behavior to infer our attitude -schema: mental structures that helps us organize all of the things around us, helps us to perceive all the information in our social worlds, organized into categories or concepts, so we can give meaning Kinds of schemas: person schemas, role schemas (ex police officer), event schemas (scripts) Functions of schemas: help simplify a situation, guide info processing, make inferences -watson task: if a card has a vowel on one side is has an even number on the other side, most people choose to prove rather than find evidence to discount Principle of aggregation: effects of an attitude on behavior become more apparent when we look at a person’s aggregate or average behavior rather than at isolated acts Role: set of norms defining how to behave in a social situation -people often adapt what they say to their listeners, and if they are not coerced they will begin to believe themselves Foot-in-the-door phenomenon: tendency for people who first agree to a small request to then agree to a larger request Low-ball technique: a tactic for getting people to agree to something, people who agree to an initial request are likely to agree to a larger one -moral action especially when chosen, leads to moral thinking Leon Festinger-Cognitive dissonance: tension when you have conflicting ideas/ attitudes. To reduce dissonance we can change behavior, change attitudes, or minimize importance. Insufficient justification effect: reduction of dissonance by internally justifying one’s behavior Effort justification effect: change attitudes to account for going through an uncomfortable event Self-perception theory: when unsure of our attitudes we infer based on our own behavior Over-justification effect: when bribing people to do what they’re already doing they may dislike it Self-affirmation theory: people experience self-image threat after an undesirable behavior, compensate by affirming another positive aspect of the self. Group processes: Social facilitation- perform better when in a group than alone, simple motor tasks (expert, practiced) Social Loafing: pool efforts toward group goal, individuals work less. Less likely if challenging, rewards, friends, commitment to team, collectivist cultures, women Deindividuation: become more group than self, doing together what we wouldn’t do alone. When: large group, anonymity, chaotic activities, costumes/ uniforms, masks. Social cues can effect whether the results are negative or positive. Group Decision Making: Neither “Risky Shift” nor “Cautious Shift”, polarize, requires like-minded groups CH 6 conformity: Conformity: change in behavior or belief to accord with others, new situations, informative, children learn and bond by imitation, mirror neurons Social influence happens when: people’s own responses, attitudes, judgments, behavior are influenced by actions of others, when people alter their responses to go along with others Kinds of Social influence: Conformity (group standards, social norms), Obedience (response to direct pressure from authority), Compliance (direct requests, implicit or explicit influence from others) Public Compliance: altering public response but not true private attitudes or beliefs Private acceptance: altering both public responses and personal attitudes or beliefs Sherif: blackened room, “autokinetic effect”, over time the judgments converged, experimenters switched participants until there were none of the original participants the same judgments persisted Asch group pressure: line judgment task, confederates chose correct answer for a couple trials then for the following trials they all picked the same wrong answer most participants also chose wrong Informational conformity: the want to be right, tasks of high difficulty or when being right is important. Normative conformity: the want to assimilate and not to stand out, to be liked by the group. Moderating Factors (change relationship between variables), Group size: conformity plateaus at 5, Unanimity: even a single dissenter weakens conformity of the group, Cohesiveness, Status, Gender: most often women, want to conform with gender, Personality: individual need for individuation or control, Public- response is made publicly without prior commitment once having made a public commitment they stick to it Asch: Political intelligence rating. They changed their interpretation of the word to conform with others. Allen and Wilder: How likely would you be to go out of your way-Reinterpretation of word to conform. Griffin and Buehler: decided for a person whether to go with risky decision or a cautious one and once told what the majority voted, changed how they viewed the situation after they conformed or dissented Authoritarianism (Fascism Scale): obedience and respect for authority are priority, strong xenophobia and fear of change, see people as either weak or strong Milgram experiment: 63% shocked the confederate until the end Moderators of obedience: 1. Emotional distance of victim: see or touch 2. Closeness and legitimacy of authority 3. Institutional Authority 4. Liberating effects of group influence 5. Removed, Fragmentation of act Psychological reactance: when an authority figure tells us to do something it makes us want to resist to protect our freedom, individuality, want to be unique Cialdini: easier to convince people to do good things if they are told everyone else is doing it too Chameleon effect: we like people more when they do subtle imitations of our actions Mood linkage: people within the same groups tend to share up and down moods Ch 5 persuasion: Culture shaping usually occurs top-down Bad persuasion we call “propaganda” and good persuasion we call “education”. Persuasion must pass several hurdles 1. Paying attention 2. Understanding it 3. Believing it 4. Remembering it 5. Behaving accordingly 6. Changed action Central route to persuasion: interested people focus on the arguments leads to more enduring change Peripheral route to persuasion: people are influenced by incidental cues -when people are more distracted easy familiar phrases Ingredients of persuasion: The communicator, message, how it is communicated, audience What makes you more Persuasive: 1. Credibil
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