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Midterm

Midterm 1 review.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PS270
Professor
Christian Jordan

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Reading: Chapter 1 What is social psychology? Social psychology: Scientific study of how people think about, influence and relate to one another • Focuses on individuals with methods that more often use experimentation • Focuses less on differences among individuals and more on how individuals in general view and affect one another • More individualistic in its content and more experimental in its method than sociology • Social psychology arose in 1898; the first social psychology texts did not appear until just after 1900 in France, Italy and Germany • Examples of social psychology • How much of our social world is just in our heads? • Would you be cruel if ordered? Ex. Nazi's actions were orders given to them • To help others or to help yourself? Major Themes in Social Psychology 1. We construct our reality • As humans, we have an urge to explain behaviour, attribute it to some cause to make it seem orderly, predictable and controllable • Two people may react differently to similar situations Ex.Attributing spouse's insult to bad day or hostility • When someone's behaviour is consistent and distinctive, we attribute their behaviour to their personality Ex. Someone who makes repeated snide comments is likely to be viewed as someone with a nasty disposition and avoid that person 2. Our social intuitions are often powerful but sometimes perilous • Intuition shapes fears, impressions and relationships Ex. Influences leaders in time of crisis, gamblers at the table, jurors in assessment of guilt • Thinking, memory and attitudes all operate on two levels; one conscious and deliberate, the other unconscious and automatic • Intuitions are powerful but also unreliable Ex. Misperceive others, often fail to acknowledge how your expectations shape our evaluations Trust memories more than we should Misread our own minds Mispredict our own feelings 3. Social influences shape our behaviour • As humans, we long to connect, belong and be well thought of • Sometimes power of social situation leads us to act in ways that depart from our normal attitudes Ex. Under Nazi influence, many otherwise decent people became instruments of the Holocaust • Culture helps define situation; standards regarding promptness, frankness and clothing vary with your culture Examples Whether you prefer slim/voluptuous body depends on where in the world you live Whether you define "social justice" as equality or equity depends on whether your view was shaped by socialism or capitalism Whether you tend to be expressive vs. reserved, casual or formal, etc. depends greatly on culture and ethnicity Individualistic vs. collectivist society • Behaviour is shaped by external forces; we adapt to social context • Humans are malleable 4. Personal attitudes and dispositions also shape behaviour • Internal forces also matter Inner attitudes affect behaviour, political attitudes influence voting behaviour, attitude toward smoking influences our susceptibility to peer pressures to smoke • Personality dispositions also affect behaviour Ex. Facing same situation, different people may react differently 5. Social behaviour is biologically rooted • Inherited human nature predisposes us to behave in ways that helped our ancestors survive • How natural selection might predispose our actions and reactions when dating/mating, hating/hurting, caring/sharing • Nature endows us with a capacity to learn and adapt to varied environments • Social neuroscience:An integration of biological and social perspectives that explores the neural and psychological bases of social and emotional behaviours Ex. What brain areas enable our experiences of love/contempt, helping/aggression, perception/belief? Believe that in order to understand social behaviour, we must consider both under-the- skin (biological) and between-skins (social) influences Ex. Stress hormones affect how we feel and act; social ostracism raises blood pressure • We are bio-psycho-social organisms 6. Relating to others is a basic need • Our relationships with others form basis of self-esteem • Mark Leary + Roy Baumeister argue that our self-esteem is nothing more than a reading of how accepted we feel by others 7. Social psychology's principles are applicable in everyday life Social Psychology and Human Values • Not-so-obvious ways in which values enter social psychology • The subjective aspects of science Science is not purely objective View world through lens of our own preconceptions Culture: The enduring behaviours, ideas, attitudes, traditions, products and institutions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next Social representations: Socially shared beliefs; widely held ideas and values, including our assumptions and cultural ideologies Our social representations help us make sense of our world • The hidden values in psychological concepts Defining the good life Values influence our idea of the best way to live our lives Ex. Maslow's definition of "self-actualized" person stems from the selected sample of self-actualized people he described Reflected Maslow's personal values Professional advice Psychological advice also reflects the advice giver's personal values Ex. When psychologists guide us on certain aspects of our lives (child-rearing, etc.) they are expressing their personal values Science can and will not answer questions of ultimate moral obligation, purpose, direction or life's meaning Forming concepts Hidden values seep into psychology's research-based concepts Depending on labelling Ex. Take test, psychologist suggests that you are high in self-esteem; take another test, researcher says you are high in "repressiveness" Labelling: Value judgements are often hidden within our social-psychological language Ex. Whether we label a quiet child as "bashful" or "cautious"/"holding back" vs. "an observer" Remarks about "ambitious" men and "aggressive" women convey a hidden message Naturalistic fallacy Naturalistic fallacy: The error of defining what is good in terms of what is observable Ex. What's typical is normal, what's normal is good If most people don't do something, that does not make it wrong; if most people do something, that does not make it right We inject our values whenever we move from objective statements of fact to prescriptive statements of what ought to be Systematic observation and experimentation help "clean the lens which we see reality" • Hindisght bias Social psychology is criticized for being trivial because it documents things that seem obvious Experiments reveal that outcomes are more "obvious" after the facts are known Paul Lazarsfeld (1949) Conducted study where he told "findings" of characteristics of soldiers in WWII Ex. Soldiers from southern climate scoped better with the hot South Sea Island weather than did northern soldiers (southern people are more accustomed to warm weather) Later revealed that his "findings" (that many thought were common sense) were actually the opposite Hindsight bias: The tendency to exaggerate, after learning the outcome, one's ability to have foreseen how something turned out Aka "I-knew-it-all-along" phenomenon Research Methods • Social psychologists organize ideas and findings into theories • Theory:An integrated set of principles that explain and predict observed events Theories are often viewed as "less than fact" Ex. People may dismiss Darwin's theory of evolution as "just a theory" Alan Leshner: "Evolution is only a theory, but so is gravity" People often respond that gravity is a fact The fact is that your keys fall to the ground when dropped; gravity is just the theoretical explanation that accounts for such observed facts Facts vs. Theories Facts:Agreed-upon statements that we observe Theories: Ideas that summarize and explain facts Theories also imply testable predictions; hypotheses Hypotheses:Atestable proposition that describes a relationship that may exist between events Allow us to test theory on which they are based Gives direction to research Theoretical predictions suggest new areas for research; send investigators looking for things they might never have thought of Predictive feature of good theories can also make them practical Operationalization: Translating variables that are described at the theoretical level into the specific variables that we are going to observe Ex. Testing why deindividuation occurs; specify what a "crowd" would be considered (20 people, 30 people, etc.) Does operational variable of "crowd" represent what we mean theoretically by a crowd? Agood theory will distill an array of facts into a much shorter list of predictive principles Can use predictions to confirm or modify the theory, generate new research and suggest practical applications Most social-psychological research is either correlational or experimental • Research can vary by location; laboratory vs. field Laboratory: Controlled situation Field: Research done in natural, real-life settings outside of the laboratory • Correlational: The study of naturally occurring relationships among variables to see if two or more factors are naturally associated Sometimes conducted with systematic survey methods Discern relationship between variables Ex.Amount of education and amount of income Knowing two things are naturally related is valuable information, but seldom indicates what is causing what, or whether there is a third variable involved Correlation vs. causation Allows us to predict but I cannot tell us whether changing on variable (ex. social status) will cause changes in another (ex. health) • Experimental: Studies that seek clues to cause-effect relationships by manipulating one or more factors (independent variables) while controlling others (holding them constant) Explore cause and effect behaviour Experimenters can vary one thing and then another and discover how these things (separately or in combination) affect behaviour Randomly assign participants to an experimental condition (experimental treatment) or to a control condition (does not receive treatment) Attribute any resulting difference between the two conditions to independent variable In creating experiments, social psychologists sometimes stage situations that engage people's emotions Obliged to follow professional ethical guidelines Obtaining people's informed consent, protecting them from harm, fully disclosing afterwards any temporary deceptions, etc. Laboratory experiments enable social psychologists to test ideas gleaned from life experience and then apply the principles and findings back in the real world • Survey research Random sample: Survey procedure in which every person in the population being studied has an equal chance of inclusion With this procedure, any subgroup of people (ex. red hair) will tend to be represented in the survey to the extent that they are represented in the total population Biasing influences Unrepresentative samples: The part of the sample that may have changed the outcome if they had been surveyed Ex. If 1 in 100 people are surveyed, it may not accurately depict the opinion of the other 99 out of 100 people that went unnoticed Order of the questions Ex. First asked whether "theAmerican government should be allowed to set limits on how much Japanese industry can sell in the United States", most answered yes; then asked whether "the Japanese government should be allowed to set limits on how much American industry can sell in Japan", which mostAmericans answered no Did so in order to seem consistent in their answers Response bias and social desirability Social desirability: The tendency for people to say what they want others to hear/what they want to believe about themselves Psychologists have developed new methods of measuring people's beliefs without them knowing that their beliefs are being measured Wording of the question Ex. On poll found that people favoured cutting "foreign aid" but opposed cutting funding "to help hungry people in other nations" Prior knowledge to topic prevent this bias • Experimental research; cause and effect Control: manipulating variables Independent variable: The experimental factor that a research manipulates Dependent variable: The variable being measured Depend on manipulations of the IV Random assignments: The process of assigning participants to the conditions of an experiment such that all persons have the same chance of being in a given condition Eliminates all extraneous factors • Ethics of experimentation Mundane realism: Degree to which an experiment is superficially similar to everyday situations Experimental realism: Degree to which an experiment absorbs and involves its participants Demand characteristics: Cues in an experiment that tells the participant what behaviour is expected Informed consent:An ethical principle requiring that research participants be told enough to enable them to choose whether they wish to participate • Two methods of research Correlational Advantage: Often use real-world settings Disadvantage: Causation often ambiguous Experimental Advantage: Can explore cause and effect by controlling variables and by random assignment Disadvantage: Some important variables cannot be studied with experiments Lecture: (1) Introduction and Methods The Kitty Genovese Murder • The assailant returned after his initial attack several time to stab her again because of her cries for help which no one answered • Roughly 35 residents heard her call and failed to answer • New York Abu Ghraib • U.S. jailers/personal tormenting prisoners of war from Iraq • Torturing or simulating torture/sexual acts Stanford Prison Experiment • 1973, Stanford University • 10 men guards, 10 men prisoners • Supposed to last 2 weeks, lasted 3 days • Forcing to simulate sexual acts, were tormenting verbally/physically • “It’s not that we put bad apples in a good barrel. We put good apples in a bad barrel. The barrel corrupts anything it touches.” – P. Zimbardo Social Psychological Questions • Why do guards demean prisoners? • Why do people sometimes not help? Key Features of Social Psych: • Social behaviour and thought • Identifying causes • Role of cognitive process • Scientific method - Sociology: Provides general laws and theories about societies or social groups, not individuals. - Social Psychology: Studies the psychological processes people have in common that make them susceptible to social influence. - Personality Psychology: Studies the characteristics that make people unique and different from one another. • Social and personality psychology are closely related Important Themes in Social Psychology 1. The power of the situation (Nazis being “cogs” in the machine that powered the holocaust) 2. The role of construal (the checkerboard illusion) (using situational reason over simply what your eyes see) • Reactions to a situation depend on interpretation and inference (of which we may be unaware) • Subjective “construction” of reality 3. Interplay of motivational and cognitive factors • Motivation – hopes, wishes, desires • Cognition – how the mind works 4. Applicable to important social issues 5. Important Themes: Culture Culture is relevant throughout the course • Psychology of Culture • How does culture influence how we understand, influence and relate to others? • Cultural Comparison • Do the phenomena observed in Western samples generalize to other cultures? What is Culture? The man-made part of the environment • Material Culture • Subjective Culture (ideas about what works) 1 Unquestioned assumptions, standard operating procedures 2 “Culture is to society what memory is to individuals” Identifying Culture • Cultural ideas are shared • Often correspond to a particular language )dialect), time period, and geographic region • Subcultures can emerge from shared characteristics, eg. Gender, ethnicity, neighborhood, occupation, social class, etc Cultural Syndromes 1. Shared elements of subjective culture organized around a theme 2. Cultural complexity (strongly associated with size of society. Bigger societies demand more role differentiation) 3. Tightness (a tight culture has many rules and expectations, violation of rules and norms are taken seriously, eg. Japan) 4. Vertical and horizontal cultures (vertical society accepts social hierarchy as a given, aka, some people are just better and are endowed with more power and privileged than others. Horizontal is much more accepting of the idea that individuals should be more equal) 5. Individualism and collectivism (most important in regards to this course. Boils down to the needs of individuals and collective groups. Individualistic societies prioritize their own needs over a groups needs, vice versa for collective societies. We, Canada, are individualistic) - Individualist (relative to Collectivist) • Attend to social groups less • Are proud of personal accomplishment • Define status by accomp0lishments (rather than relationships or affiliations) • Are competitive • Are not as concerned about cooperation and smooth social interaction • Believe in autonomy and self-reliance • • Goals of the Course 1 Introduction to a knowledge base 2 Introduction to a perspective 3 Away of thinking about social behaviour 4 Social behaviour can be explored in a systematic, scientific manner 5 Reason for study: 1 Practical implications 2 Personal Interests Social psychology and common sense • Beauty and brain don't mix 1 "Halo effect" 1 Tend to believe more attractive people are less intelligent • Larger rewards make people enjoy activities more 1 Ex. of falsifiability: Football/soccer enjoyment diminishes when one does it as a job • People believe they are more unique than they really are 1 "False consensus" • Violent video games release aggression, making people less aggressive 1 Supposedly let's off steam 2 No evidence that this is true 3 Actually has shown to increase violent behaviour Common sense criticism • "Day after day, social scientists go into the world and discover that people's behaviour is pretty much what you'd expect." • People think research in social psych is useless because it is "common sense" • Problems with common sense criticism • Common wisdom is unclear, ambiguous and contradictory Ex. Competing proverbs 1 Too many cooks spoil the broth vs. two heads are better than one 2 Pen is mightier than the sword vs. actions speak louder than words 3 How do you establish which one is true? • Common wisdom is often inaccurate or incomplete Ex. Fundamental attribution error; causal explanation of behaviour 1 Recap; the tendency to overestimate personality as a cause of behaviour and to underestimate the power of the situation 1 Ex. See someone being helpful - assume person I naturally helpful; do not consider situation (wants to look good, impress someone, etc.) • Hindsight bias When told results of study, you feel as though you knew all along what the result would be Fischoff, 1975 1 Participants presented with factual questions 1 What magazine had the highest circulation in 1979? 2 Condition 1: Estimate the likelihood that you have answered the question correctly before knowing answer 3 Condition 2:After knowing the answer, estimate the likelihood that you would have answered correctly if you had not been told the answer 4 Assume what is acceptable is right Research Methods • Social psych is based on empirical evidence • Test hypotheses against systematic observation • Hypotheses and variables • Hypothesis: How two or more variables are thought to be related 1 Ex. Increased exposure to media violence leads to increase in aggression 1 Will often be causal; x causes y • Independent variable (IV): Presumed cause • Dependent variable (DV): Presumed effect, dependant on IV • Theory: An organized set of principles that can be used to explain observed phenomena • Social psychologists engage in continual process of theory refinement 1 Theory -> Hypothesis -> Test -> Revise -> Theory, etc. 2 Researchers often see a phenomenon in everyday life, devise theory and design a study to test it • Experimental vs. Correlational Studies • Experimental; IV manipulated, DV measured • Correlational; IV measured, DV measured • Correlational research • Can reveal whether changes in one is associated with change in another 1 Correlational study relating class attendance to GPA • Direction and strength of relationship indexed by correlation coefficient 1 R = -1.0 to r = 1.0 2 0 = no correlation • Positive correlation:As value of X increases, value or Y increases; slope going upwards as it goes along X axis • Negative correlation: As value of X increases, value of Y decreases; slope going downwards as it goes along X axis • Correlations and Cause • 3 possible causal interpretations 1 Causal; X = Y 2 Reverse causation 1 Y = X 2 Roles of variables are backwards 3 Think X = Y but Y = X 3 Third variable 1 Outside variable influencing other variables 2 Z = X + Y 3 Ex. GPA= class attendance 1 Having a job is an extraneous factor; aka Z • Experimental Research • Can reveal whether changes in one variable (IV) lead to changes in another variable (DV) • Cause and effect • Two key features 1 Manipulation of IV 1 Ex. Get one group of kids to play violent video games, the other a non-violent video game 2 Random assignment to conditions 1 Ex. Flip a coin to determine which kid joins which group • Experimental Methods • Strive to ensure that experimental conditions are identical except for the IV manipulation 1 Control extraneous variable • Random assignment 1 Doesn't erase dispositional characteristics; average aggressive traits are spread among both groups • Internal validity • RandomAssignment • Experimental (DV) condition, play violent video games, measure aggression • Control (IV) condition, play non-violent video games, measure aggression • Subject self-selection • Have different groups to compare • Participants may have selected themselves into groups 1 Might have differed beforehand 2 Ex. Those who used Connect might have been more motivated to do work, implying that they are more studious, resulting in a higher GPA • Why not always use an experiment? • Impossible, impractical, unethical • Limits of experimentation 1 Some variables cannot be manipulated 1 Ex. Gender, age, race, social class 2 Ethical concerns about manipulations 1 Smoking, unsafe sexual behaviour 3 Artificially of studies 1 Mundane vs. psychological realism 2 Not everyday situations 3 Mundane realism: The extent to which what participants are doing would occur in day-to-day life 1 What is being studied vs. how often it happens in everyday life 4 Psychological realism:AKAexperimental realism • Ethics to experimentation 1 Deception: Misleading participants about purposes or events in study 1 Social psychologists sometimes employ cover stories 1 Increases psychological realism 2 Reduces demand characteristics and social desirability concerns 2 Debriefing: Explaining the purpose of a study and what actually transpired • Reading: Chapter 2 The Self • Connection between what happens in the world around and what goes on in our heads • Social surroundings affect our self-awareness • Self-interest colours our social judgement • Self-concern motivates our social behaviour • Social relationships help define the self • Sense of self helps organize our thoughts and actions • Self-concepts consists of two elements: Self-schemas Possible selves Self Concept • Self-concept:Aperson's answers to the questions "Who am I?" • Medial prefrontal cortex (neuron bath located in cleft between brain hemispheres behind the eyes) help stitch together our sense of self • Self-schema: Beliefs about self that organize and guide the processing of self-relevant information • Ex. Perceiving ourselves as athletic, smart, etc. • Possible selves: Images of what we dream of or dread becoming in the future • Help motivate us for the life we strive for, or the life we are trying to avoid • Development of social self • Studies of twins point to genetic influences on personality and self-concept in combination with social experience • Influences include: Our social identity Social identity: The "we" aspect of our self-concept The part of our answer to "who am I?" that comes from our group memberships 1 Ex. "I am Canadian" When we are apart of the majority, we are less conscious of our social identity 1 Ex.Asolo Canadian in a group of Europeans Comparisons we make with others Social comparisons: Evaluating your abilities and opinions by comparing yourself to others Compare ourselves to those around us and become conscious of how we differ Use others as a benchmark by which we can evaluate our performance and beliefs Our successes and failures Ex.After experiencing academic success, students believe they are better at school, which often stimulates them to work harder and achieve more How other people judge us Looking glass self: Our use of how we think others perceive us as a mirror for perceiving ourselves (Cooley) Herbert Mead refined the concept 1 What matters for our self-concept is not how others actually see us but the way we imagine they see us Our self esteem tracks how we see ourselves on traits that we believe are valued by others The surrounding culture Individualism: The concept of giving priority to one's own goals over group goals and defining one's identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group identifications "I am" test Collectivism: Giving priority to the goals of one's groups (family or work group) and defining one's identity accordingly Interdependent self: Construing one's identity in relation to others Self-Knowledge • Predicting behaviour • Planning fallacy: The tendency to underestimate how long it will take to complete a task • Predicted feelings • Often over/under estimate how we will feel after an incident Ex.After a break up, we think we will be "heartbroken" for months, but it really lasts a few weeks to a month • Impact bias: Overestimating the enduring impact of emotion-causing events Faster than we expect, the emotional traces of such good tidings evaporate • Immune neglect: The human tendency to underestimate the speed and strength of the "psychological immune system" Psychological immune system: Enables emotional recovery and resilience after bad things happen 1 Includes strategies for rationalizing, discounting, forgiving and limiting emotional trauma • The wisdom and illusions of self-analysis • Studies of perception and memory show that we are more aware of the results of our thinking than its process • Dual attitude system: Differing implicit (automatic) and explicit (consciously controlled) attitudes toward the same object Verbalized explicit attitudes may change with education and persuasion; implicit attitudes change slowly, with practice that forms new habits Self-Esteem: How am I? • Self-esteem:Aperson's overall self-evaluation or sense of self-worth we use to appraise our traits and abilities • Our self-concepts are determined by multiple influences, including the roles we play, the comparisons we make, our social identities, how we perceive others appraising us and our experiences of success and failure • Self-esteem motivation influences cognitive processes Facing failure, high self-esteem people sustain their self-worth by perceiving other people as failing too and by exaggerating their superiority over others • The "dark side" of self esteem • Low self-esteem predicts increased risk of depression, drug abuse and some forms of delinquency • Researchers have found that people high in both self-esteem and narcissism are the most aggressive Someone with a big ego who is threatened or deflated by social rejection is potentially aggressive The Self In Action • Our sense of self helps organize our thoughts and actions • Out ability to effortfully regulate our behaviour, or willpower, works similarly to muscular strength • Can be exhausted by use in short term but can also be strengthened by regular exercise • Weaker after exertion, replenished with rest and strengthened by exercise • Learned helplessness often occurs when attempts to improve a situation have been proven fruitless • Learned helplessness: The hopelessness and resignation learned when a human or animal perceives no control over repeated bad events • If you develop self-control in one aspect of your life, it may spill over into other areas as well • Self-determination, in contrast, is bolstered by experiences of successfully exercising control and improving one's situation • People who believe in their own competence and effectiveness cope better and achieve more than those who have learned a helpless, pessimistic outlook • People with a higher self-efficacy succeed more than those with a lower sense of self- efficacy Self-Serving Bias • Self-serving bias: The tendency to perceive yourself favourably • Self-serving attributions:Aform of self-serving bias; the tendency to attribute positive outcomes to yourself and negative outcomes to other factors Contribute to marital discord, worker dissatisfaction and bargaining impasses • We see ourselves as objective and everyone else as bias • False consensus effect: The tendency to overestimate the commonality of one's opinions and one's undesirable or unsuccessful behaviours • As people's own lives change, they see the world changing Ex. Protective new parents come to see the world as a more dangerous place Ex. People who harbour negative ideas about another racial group presume that many others also have negative stereotypes • False uniqueness effect: The tendency to underestimate the commonality of one's abilities and one's desirable or successful behaviours • May see failings as relatively normal and our virtues as relatively exceptional • Temporal comparison:Acomparison between how the self is viewed now and how the self was viewed in the past or how the self is expected to be viewed in the future • Self serving bias + examples • Self-serving attribution Ex. "I got an Ain history because I studied hard. I got a D in sociology because the exams were unfair." • Comparison to others Ex. "I'm better to my parents than my sister is." • Unrealistic optimism Ex. "Even though 50% of marriages fail, I know mine will be one of enduring joy." • False consensus and uniqueness "I know most people agree with me that global warming threatens our future." • Self serving bias also inflate people's judgement of their groups • Group-serving bias: Explaining away out-group members' positive behaviours Also attributing negative behaviours to their dispositions (while excusing such behaviours by one's own group) Self-Presentation: Looking Good to Others • Self handicapping • Sometimes people sabotage their chances for success by creating impediments that make success less likely 1 Ex. Being deliberately self destructive 2 This occurs because in a situation where self-image is tied with performance, it can be more self-deflating to try hard and fail than to procrastinate and have a ready excuse 1 If we fail while working under a handicap, we can cling to a sense of competence 2 If we succeed under such conditions, it will only boost our self- image • Handicaps protect self-esteem and self image 1 Allows us to attribute failures to something temporary or external rather than lack of talent or ability • Self-handicapping: Protecting one's self-image with behaviours that create a handy excuse for a later failure • Impression Management • Self-presentation: The act of expressing yourself and behaving in ways designed to create a favourable impression or an impression that corresponds to your ideals 1 Wanting to present a desired image both to an external audience (other people) and to an internal audience (ourselves) 2 Occurs without conscious effort • Self-monitoring: Being attuned to the way you present yourself in social situations and adjusting your performance to create the desired impression 1 Explain examples of false modesty in which people put themselves down or publicly credit others when they privately credit themselves 2 Lecture: (2) The Self and Identity • Roy F. Baumeister • Duality of Self • The "I" (subjective consciousness) Active information processor The knower • The "Me" (object of consciousness) Self-concept The known Beliefs about self that result from treating oneself as an object of perception • Self-concept and Self-esteem Self-concept: Our thoughts about ourselves; cognitions, beliefs 1 Personal identity: Physical attributes, beliefs, traits, abilities 2 Social identity: Social groups, roles; family, race, gender, school, etc. 3 Flexibility of self-concepts 1 There is stability in our self views 2 Also flexibility 1 Working self-concept 1 Depending on situation/environment, the self changes 1 Ex. Work, school, family, etc. 4 Context matters 1 Context determines identity salience 2 Social distinctiveness 1 Minority identity often salient 2 Ex. Physical race becomes more apparent/key distinct trait when a minority in a room 5 Structure of self-concept (Linville, 1987) 1 Self-complexity: Whether people think about themselves as having many distinct identities 1 Assessed using a card-sorting task 2 High complexity if; 1 Many identities 2 Little overlap across identities 3 Helps bugger against adversity 4 People with high self complexity are less likely to react emotionally Self-esteem: Our evaluation about ourselves 1 Beliefs about own value/worth • Cultural differences in self concept • Individualist self Emphasis on the individual including rights, independence and differences from other individuals Strive for uniqueness • Collectivist self Emphasis on group and interrelatedness with others, including relationships, roles and duties Strive for social harmony Functions of the Self • Executive function Self-regulation; allows planned behaviour Possible selves 1 We can see ourselves in the future, plan present around future goals The Self and Ego Deprivation 1 Ex.Avoiding socializing in order to study 2 Self control as a limited resource 1 Ex. Baumeister radish study 3 Willpower is like a muscle; too much use causes deprivation 1 But may be able to train/exercise willpower • Emotional function Determines emotional response Self-esteem 1 Contrary to popular belief, not strongly related to: 1 Academic performance 2 Career success 3 Better interpersonal relationships 4 Physical health 2 Possible reason for belief; people with high self esteem often see themselves as good students, workers, healthy, happy, etc. 3 Is strongly related to: 1 Happiness and well-being 2 Beliefs about the world 1 High self esteem people are often more optimistic • Organizational function Acts as schema to help us interpret and recall information about ourselves and the social world Self reference effect 1 People remember new information better when they try to relate it to themselves 2 In research studies; had participants read a list of words with various processing goals in mind 3 Self schemas • Generalizations about ourselves based on past experiences that serve to organize and guide processing of self related information • Schematics: People who possess a self schema for a particular dimension (e.g. independence) • Markus (1977) Participants were schematic for independence or dependence or were aschematic 1 Based on extremity and importance of rating Adjectives indicating dependence (tolerant, conforming, obliging) and independence (independent, individualistic) • Schematics Recall more behavioural evidence Make more confident self-predictions Are more resistant to counter-schematic information Judge others more easily in terms of schematic dimensions • How do we learn about ourselves? • Through social interaction Symbolic interactionism: Self as a reflection of appraisals made by significant others 1 Labelling, socialization, parenting, etc. Looking glass self (Cooley) 1 The idea that we see ourselves through the eyes of other people and incorporate their perceptions of us into our self Reflected appraisals 1 Sometimes others actual views of us do impact self-views 1 Ex. College students changed their self views in line with roommates initial impressions 2 Worked both ways 1 College students self-concepts also affected roommates opinion of them Reflected Appraisals • Sometimes others actual views of us do impact our self views • College students changed their se
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