Chapter 6- Conformity
Conformity—a change in behavior or belief to accord with others
Compliance- conformity that involves publicly acting in accord with social pressure while
Obedience- acting in accord with a direct order
Acceptance- conformity that involves both acting and believing in accord with social pressure
Autokinetic phenomenon- self (auto) motion (kinetic). The apparent movement of a stationary
point of light in the dark. Perhaps you have experienced this when thinking you have spotted a
moving satellite in the sky, only to realize later that it was merely an isolated star.
Confederate- an accomplice of the experimenter
Cohesiveness- a “we feeling”—the extent to which members of a group are bound together, such
as by attraction for one another
Normative influence- conformity based on a persons desire to fulfill others expectations, often to
Informational influence- conformity that results from accepting evidence about reality provided
by other people
Reactance- a motive to protect or restore one’s sense of freedom. Reactance arises when someone
threatens our freedom of action.
Chapter 7- Group Influence
Group- two or more people who, for longer than a few moments, interact with and influence one
another and perceive one another as “us”
Co-actors- a group of people working simultaneously and individually on a non-competitive task
Social Facilitation- (1) original meaning: the tendency of people to perform simple or well-
learned tasks better when others are present; (2) current meaning: the strengthening of dominant
(prevalent, likely) responses owing to the presence of others
EvaluationApprehension- concern for how others are evaluating us
Social Loafing- the tendency for people to exert less effort when they pool their efforts toward a
common goal than when they are individually accountable
Free Riders- people who benefit form the group but give little in return
De-individuation- loss of self-awareness and evaluation apprehension; occurs in group situations
that foster anonymity and draw attention away from the individual
Pluralistic Ignorance- a false impression of how other people are thinking, feeling, or responding
Groupthink- the mode of thinking that persons engage in when concurrence seeking becomes so
dominant in a cohesive in group that it tends to override realistic appraisal of alternative course of
Leadership- the process by which certain group members motivate and guide the group
Chapter 8-Altruism: Helping Others
Altruism- a motive to increase another’s welfare without conscious regard for ones self-interest
Social-exchange theory- the theory that human interactions are transactions that aim to maximize
ones rewards and minimize ones costs
Egoism- a motive (supposedly underlying all behavior) to increase your own welfare. The
opposite of altruism, which aims to increase someone else’s welfare
Reciprocity norm- an expectation that people will help, not hurt, those who have helped them
Social-responsibility norm- an expectation that people will help those dependent upon them
Kin Selection- the idea that evolution has selected altruism toward one close relatives to enhance
the survival of mutually shared genes
Empathy- the vicarious experience of someone else’s feeling; putting yourself in someone else’s
Bystander effect- the finding that a person is less likely to provide help when there are other
bystanders Door-in-the-face technique- a strategy for gaining a concession.After someone first turns down a
larger request (the door-in-the-face), the same requester counter-offers with a more reasonable
Moral Exclusion- the perception of certain individuals or groups as outside the boundary within
which you apply moral values and rules of fairness
Moral Inclusion- regarding others as within your circle of moral concern
Chapter 9-Aggression: Hurting Others
Aggression- physical or verbal behavior intending to hurt someone
Hostile Aggression- aggression driven by anger and performed as an end in itself
Instrumental Aggression- aggression that is a means to some other end
Instinctive Behavior- an innate, unlearned behavior pattern exhibited by all members of a species
Frustration-aggression theory- the theory that frustration triggers a readiness to aggress
Frustration- the blocking of goal-directed behavior
Displacement- the redirecting of aggression to a target other than the source of the frustration.
Generally, the new target is a safer or more socially acceptable target
Relative deprivation- the perception that one is less well off than others to whom one compares
Social Learning Theory- the theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and
by being rewarded and punished
Catharsis- emotional release; The catharsis view of aggression is that aggression drive is reduced
when one “releases” aggressive energy, either by acting aggressively or by fantasizing aggression
Post-social behavior- positive, constructive, helpful social behavior; the opposite of anti-social
Social Script- culturally provided mental instructions for how to act in various situations
Chapter 10-Attraction and Intimacy: Liking and Loving Others
Need to Belong- a motivation to bond with others in relationships that provide ongoing positive
Proximity Geographical Nearness- proximity (more precisely, “functional distance”) powerfully
Mere-exposure Effect- the tendency for novel stimuli to be liked more or rated more positively
after the rater has been repeatedly exposed to them
Matching Phenomenon- the tendency for men and women to choose as partners those who are a
“good match” in attractiveness and other traits
Physical-Attractiveness stereotype- the presumption that physical attractive people posses other
socially desirable traits as well: What is beautiful is good.
Complementarity- the popularly supported tendency, in a relationship between two people, for
each to complete what is missing in the other
Ingratiation- the use of strategies, such as flattery; by which people seek to gain another’s favor
Reward theory of attraction- the theory that we like those whose behavior is rewarding to us or
whom we associate with rewarding events
Passionate Love- a state of intense longing for union with another; passionate lovers are absorbed
in one another; they feel ecstatic at attaining their partners love, and they are disconsolate on
Two-factor theory of emotion- arousal X its label = emotion
Companionate Love- the affection we feel for those with whom our lives are deeply intertwined
Secure Attachment- attachments rooted in trust and marked by intimacy
PreoccupiedAttachment- attachments marked by a sense of one’s own unworthiness and anxiety,
ambivalence, and possessiveness
DismissiveAttachment- an avoidant relationship style marked by distrust of others
FearfulAttachment- an avoidant relationship style marked by a fear of rejection Equity- a condition in which the outcomes people receive from a relationship is proportional to
what they contribute to it
Self-disclosure- revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others
Disclosure Reciprocity- the tendency for one person’s intimacy of self-disclosure to match that of
a conversational partner
Chapter 6: Conformity
Conformity: a change in behavior or belief caused by real or imagined social pressure
1. Public Compliance
2. Private Compliance
Obedience: Changes in behavior in response to the commands of an authority figure. Example:
Lt. William Calley and the My Lai Massacre.
Bad Conformity: when it leads to someone drinking and driving
Good Conformity: when it inhibits people from cutting in front of us in a theatre line
Inconsequencel Conformity: when it disposes tennis players to wear white
*Key is will your behavior and beliefs be the same when you are apart from a group. Different
Varieties of Conformity...
Compliance: conformity that involves publicly acting in accord with social pressure while
privately disagreeing. Example: wearing a bowtie or dress
Obedience: acting in accord with a direct order. Example: comply to reap an award or avoid a
Acceptance: conformity that involves both acting and believing in accord with social pressures.
Example: believing that exercise is healthy.
Kinds of Social Influence
▯ Conformity: group standards or norms
▯ Compliance: direct requests
▯ Obedience: direct commands
SolomanAsch‘s Group Pressure Study
• ▯ Participants judged which of three comparison lines matched the standard line
• ▯ Unambiguous line judgment task
• ▯ Hear others responses first
• ▯ Would we ever yield to coercion to hurt another? Stanly Milgram wondered.
• ▯ Start with neutral trials
• ▯ 12 critical trials- everyone else gives the wrong answer
o Note: control participants tested individually made essentially no errorsAuto Kinetic
Phenomenon: self (auto) motion (kinetic). The apparent movement of a stationary point of light in
the dark. Perhaps you have experienced this when thinking you have spotted a moving satellite in
the sky, only to realize later that it was merely an isolated star.
What predicts Conformity?
Unanimity: conformity is reduced if the model behavior or belief is not unanimous Cohesion: the
more cohesive a group the more power it gains over members
Status: higher status people tend to have more impact
Public Response: people conform more when they respond publicly in front of others rather than
writing their answer privately
No Prior Commitment: a prior commitment to a certain behavior or belief increases the likelihood
that a person will stick with the commitment rather than conform.
Why do people conform?
Normative Influence: the desire to be accepted and fit in. Public vs. Private responses Informational Influence: the desire to be right.Ambiguous tasks, crisis situations; can insight
Social Power: the potential to influence other and to resist influence by others. Can arise from
many sources: Coercive power, reward power, legitimate power, expert power, and referent
Obedience: changes in behavior in response to the commands of an authority figure
Stanley Milgram‘s Obedience Study
The Liberating effects of group influence
• ▯ Conformity can also be constructive
• ▯ Example: the heroic figures who rushed into the flaming world trade center were
incredibly brave, but also they were partly obeying their superiors, partly conforming to
group loyalty Who Conforms?
Personality: good predictors of average conformity, bad predictors or specific acts of
Culture: culture socializes people to be more or less socially responsive
Social Roles: social roles involve a certain degree of conformity and conforming
expectations is an important task when stepping into a new social role.
Reactance: a motive to protect or restore ones sense of freedom. Reactance arises when
someone threatens our freedom of action.
Why do people obey?
• ▯ Unfamiliar situations
• ▯ Transfer of responsibility
• ▯ Gradual, incremental nature
Impression Formation and Power (Fiske)
• ▯ People with power: may be less motivated to process information about subordinates
• ▯ Rely on stereotypes more
• ▯ This may contribute to gender and ethnic discrimination in the workplace
• ▯ Subordinates: more motivated to carefully observe supervisors characteristics and
• ▯ Focus on individuating information
• ▯ May allow greater perceptions of control, and greater ability to predict important
outcomes Stevens and Fiske (1995)
• ▯ Manipulated power in dyads
• ▯ People with power (relative to their less powerful partners) were‖
o Less interested in individuating information about their partner
o Made more stereotypes, biased attributions about their partners. Sexual Harassment
• ▯ men are more often in positions of power and control important outcomes
• ▯ they may stereotype more and categorize women as traditions, or ̳sexy‘ types Depends
▯ Perceived norms
o Correlational evidence ▯ Individual differences
o Likelihood to sexually harass scale Particiapnts: High or Low LSH mean
• ▯ Watched a manager help an attractive female with a word-processing task
• ▯ The manager either was sexually harassing, or friends but professional
• ▯ Then participants had to interact with the attractive confederate • ▯ Observed uninvited physical contact and sexual comments
Automatic Link between power and sex (Bargh et al.)
• ▯ Some men may be unaware that they associate power with sex
• ▯ High LSH men have sex primed by power
• ▯ When power is (unobtrusively) primed, high LSH rated a female confederate as more
Chapter 7: Group Influence
Group: two or more people, who for longer than a few moments, interact with an influence one
another and perceive one another as ̳us‘
• ▯ Members interact
• ▯ Needs and goals rely on each other
• ▯ Mutual influence
• ▯ Establish group norms
• ▯ Size: 2-6
• ▯ Cohesiveness: qualities that bind members together and promote liking
Three examples of social collective influence: social facilitation, social loafing,
Social Facilitation: how are we affected by the presence of others? Presence of others can
o ▯ Original meaning: the tendency of people to perform simple or well learned
tasks better when others are present
o ▯ Current meaning: the strengthening of likely responses owing to the presence
Co-actors: group of people working simultaneously and individually on a non-
o ▯ Cockroach‘s study (Zajonc et al.)▯ Presence of other diminishes efficiency
o ▯ Winding fishing line▯ people would work faster when they worked with co-
actor than they would alone
o ▯ Presence of others improves the accuracy in which people do simple motor
o ▯ Others▯Arousal▯Dominant Response
Reasons for arousal...
Mere Presence: mere presence of other produces some arousal even without
evaluation apprehension or arousing distracting. Ex. Cockroach behaviour
Evaluation apprehension: concern for how others are evaluating us. Not just mere
Distraction-conflict: non-social distractions
Social Facilitation vs. loafing
• ▯ Social Facilitation: other people are around, not participating in the activity. Individual
efforts are easily observed
• ▯ Social Loafing: other people are performing the same activity. Individual efforts are
Social Loafing: The tendency for people to exert less effort when they pool their efforts
towards a common goal than when they are individually accountable. Do individuals
exert less effort in a group?
• ▯ Tug of war • ▯ Tug of war apparatus (Kravits and Martin): founds that collective effort of tug of war
teams was half the sum of the individual efforts.
• ▯ This suggested that group members may actually be less motivated when performing
• ▯ Percentage of individual performance declines as group size increases Free riders:
people who benefit from the group but give little in return.
Jackon & Williams (1985)
• ▯ Participants worked on simple or complex mazes, another participant did the same
• ▯ Evaluated individually or averaged
• ▯ Participants were more relaxed when their scored were not individually evaluated
• ▯ Who is more likely to slack off in groups where individual efforts are hidden?
• ▯ Karau & Williams: 150+ studies.
• ▯ Men loaf more than women. Women are more collectivist and other- oriented.
Men are more individualistic
Deindividualizaition: loosening of normal constraints on behavior, leading to more
impulsive and deviant acts.
Loss of self-awareness and evaluation apprehension; occurs in-group situations that foster
anonymity and draw attention away from the individual.
• ▯ Group Size
• ▯ Physical anonymity
• ▯ Arousing and distracting activities
Diener et al(1976) trick or treaters more likely to deindividuate when they are in a group
Situational cues Johnson & Downing (1979) KKK/ Nurses
▯ In their study, the people delivering the shocks wore either Ku Klux Klan robes or nurse‘s
uniforms. The subjects in the KKK costumes shocked more than control groups, and those in
nurse‘s uniforms shocked less
The Darkened Chamber: Gergen(1973)
• ▯ Deindividuation enhanced affectionate behavior
• ▯ Couples who were deindividuated using a dark chamber displayed significantly more
affection behavior such as touching and caressing in comparison to individuated couples
in a light chamber Uniforms
▯ Identical uniforms can reduce a sense of personal identity. Feel less accountable, act more
Group Polarization: do groups intensify our opinions? Group-produced enhancement of
member‘s pre-existing tendencies; a strengthening of member‘s average tendency, not a split
between the groups
• ▯ Two explanations for its occurance
• ▯ PersuasiveArguments: Informational influence, tend to hear arguments favoring initial
position; get new information
• ▯ Social Comparison: normative influence, want to hold desirable opinions, try to
Pluralistic Ignorance: a false impression of how other people are thinking, feeling or responding.
• ▯ Believing one‘s private attitudes differ from others‘, even though one‘s public behavior
are the same. Example: asking questions in class, drinking on campus • ▯ Misperceiving the norm
• ▯ Don‘t realize that others advice may me more extreme than ones own
• ▯ Discussion reveals this fact, and leads to more extreme recommendations
Groupthink: the mode of thinking that persons engage in when concurrence seeking
becomes so dominant in a cohesive in-group that it tends to override realistic appraisal of
alternative courses of action.
▯ To avoid groupthink a leader can...
1. Avoid taking a directive role
2. Solicit advice and opinions from people outside the group
3. Solicit opinions anonymously, as by secret ballot
Leadership: the process by which certain group members motivate and guide the group Influence
of Minority: sometimes a minority can influence and even overturn a majority person.
Chapter 8:Altruism: Helping Others
Altruism: a motive to increase another‘s welfare without conscious regard for one‘s self interest.
Opposite of selfishness
The desire to help another person even if it doesn‘t involve a benefit, or a cost to the helper.
Prosocial Behavior: any act performed with the goal of benefiting another person.
What motivates helping?
Social Exchange theory: the theory that human interactions are transactions that aim to maximize
their own rewards and minimize their costs. People will only help when the rewards outweigh the
costs of helping. (that is, there is no true altruism)
▯ Distress; social approval; self-worth; reciprocity
Rewards: may be internal or external.
Example of External: when businesses donate money to improve their corporate image Example
of Internal: blood donors, leave tips for waiters
Egoism: a motive (supposedly underlying all behavior) to increase your own welfare. The
opposite of altruism, which aims to increase someone else‘s welfare.
Empathy: the ability to experience events and emotions the way another person experiences them
Empathy-altruism hypothesis: empathy leads to helping for purely altruistic reasons, regardless or
personal gains (C. Daniel Batson)
▯ Batson believes that if someone is empathetic they will help regardless of the reward and cost.
Looking forAltruism (Toi & Batson 1982)
• ▯ Participants listen to ―radio programs‖
• ▯ Get on pilot program to hear
• ▯ Interview with Carol, who was in a bad car accident. Now in a wheelchair
• ▯ Will participants help Carol by sharing their course notes with her?
• ▯ Empathy manipulations
• ▯ Results of Percent agreeing to help Carol
o Low Empathy: If Carol is NOT in class 35 agree to help. If Carol is in the Class 72 agree to
o High Empathy: If Carol is NOT in class 72 agree to help. If Carol is in the class 79 agree to
The Kitty Genovese Murder
• ▯ Murdered while her neighbors watch • ▯ 37 witnesses, only one called the cop, upon arrival of the police. Kitty was already
• ▯ Bystander effect
• ▯ Why didn‘t anyone call the police? Diffusion of Responsibility
• ▯ Darley and