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Department
Psychology
Course
PS270
Professor
Lawrence Murphy
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter 6- Conformity Conformity—a change in behavior or belief to accord with others Compliance- conformity that involves publicly acting in accord with social pressure while privately disagreeing Obedience- acting in accord with a direct order Acceptance- conformity that involves both acting and believing in accord with social pressure Autokinetic phenomenon- self (auto) motion (kinetic). The apparent movement of a stationary point of light in the dark. Perhaps you have experienced this when thinking you have spotted a moving satellite in the sky, only to realize later that it was merely an isolated star. Confederate- an accomplice of the experimenter Cohesiveness- a “we feeling”—the extent to which members of a group are bound together, such as by attraction for one another Normative influence- conformity based on a persons desire to fulfill others expectations, often to gain acceptance Informational influence- conformity that results from accepting evidence about reality provided by other people Reactance- a motive to protect or restore one’s sense of freedom. Reactance arises when someone threatens our freedom of action. Chapter 7- Group Influence Group- two or more people who, for longer than a few moments, interact with and influence one another and perceive one another as “us” Co-actors- a group of people working simultaneously and individually on a non-competitive task Social Facilitation- (1) original meaning: the tendency of people to perform simple or well- learned tasks better when others are present; (2) current meaning: the strengthening of dominant (prevalent, likely) responses owing to the presence of others EvaluationApprehension- concern for how others are evaluating us Social Loafing- the tendency for people to exert less effort when they pool their efforts toward a common goal than when they are individually accountable Free Riders- people who benefit form the group but give little in return De-individuation- loss of self-awareness and evaluation apprehension; occurs in group situations that foster anonymity and draw attention away from the individual Pluralistic Ignorance- a false impression of how other people are thinking, feeling, or responding Groupthink- the mode of thinking that persons engage in when concurrence seeking becomes so dominant in a cohesive in group that it tends to override realistic appraisal of alternative course of action Leadership- the process by which certain group members motivate and guide the group Chapter 8-Altruism: Helping Others Altruism- a motive to increase another’s welfare without conscious regard for ones self-interest Social-exchange theory- the theory that human interactions are transactions that aim to maximize ones rewards and minimize ones costs Egoism- a motive (supposedly underlying all behavior) to increase your own welfare. The opposite of altruism, which aims to increase someone else’s welfare Reciprocity norm- an expectation that people will help, not hurt, those who have helped them Social-responsibility norm- an expectation that people will help those dependent upon them Kin Selection- the idea that evolution has selected altruism toward one close relatives to enhance the survival of mutually shared genes Empathy- the vicarious experience of someone else’s feeling; putting yourself in someone else’s shoes Bystander effect- the finding that a person is less likely to provide help when there are other bystanders Door-in-the-face technique- a strategy for gaining a concession.After someone first turns down a larger request (the door-in-the-face), the same requester counter-offers with a more reasonable request Moral Exclusion- the perception of certain individuals or groups as outside the boundary within which you apply moral values and rules of fairness Moral Inclusion- regarding others as within your circle of moral concern Chapter 9-Aggression: Hurting Others Aggression- physical or verbal behavior intending to hurt someone Hostile Aggression- aggression driven by anger and performed as an end in itself Instrumental Aggression- aggression that is a means to some other end Instinctive Behavior- an innate, unlearned behavior pattern exhibited by all members of a species Frustration-aggression theory- the theory that frustration triggers a readiness to aggress Frustration- the blocking of goal-directed behavior Displacement- the redirecting of aggression to a target other than the source of the frustration. Generally, the new target is a safer or more socially acceptable target Relative deprivation- the perception that one is less well off than others to whom one compares oneself Social Learning Theory- the theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded and punished Catharsis- emotional release; The catharsis view of aggression is that aggression drive is reduced when one “releases” aggressive energy, either by acting aggressively or by fantasizing aggression Post-social behavior- positive, constructive, helpful social behavior; the opposite of anti-social behavior Social Script- culturally provided mental instructions for how to act in various situations Chapter 10-Attraction and Intimacy: Liking and Loving Others Need to Belong- a motivation to bond with others in relationships that provide ongoing positive interaction Proximity Geographical Nearness- proximity (more precisely, “functional distance”) powerfully predicts liking Mere-exposure Effect- the tendency for novel stimuli to be liked more or rated more positively after the rater has been repeatedly exposed to them Matching Phenomenon- the tendency for men and women to choose as partners those who are a “good match” in attractiveness and other traits Physical-Attractiveness stereotype- the presumption that physical attractive people posses other socially desirable traits as well: What is beautiful is good. Complementarity- the popularly supported tendency, in a relationship between two people, for each to complete what is missing in the other Ingratiation- the use of strategies, such as flattery; by which people seek to gain another’s favor Reward theory of attraction- the theory that we like those whose behavior is rewarding to us or whom we associate with rewarding events Passionate Love- a state of intense longing for union with another; passionate lovers are absorbed in one another; they feel ecstatic at attaining their partners love, and they are disconsolate on losing it Two-factor theory of emotion- arousal X its label = emotion Companionate Love- the affection we feel for those with whom our lives are deeply intertwined Secure Attachment- attachments rooted in trust and marked by intimacy PreoccupiedAttachment- attachments marked by a sense of one’s own unworthiness and anxiety, ambivalence, and possessiveness DismissiveAttachment- an avoidant relationship style marked by distrust of others FearfulAttachment- an avoidant relationship style marked by a fear of rejection Equity- a condition in which the outcomes people receive from a relationship is proportional to what they contribute to it Self-disclosure- revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others Disclosure Reciprocity- the tendency for one person’s intimacy of self-disclosure to match that of a conversational partner Chapter 6: Conformity Conformity: a change in behavior or belief caused by real or imagined social pressure 1. Public Compliance 2. Private Compliance Obedience: Changes in behavior in response to the commands of an authority figure. Example: Lt. William Calley and the My Lai Massacre. Bad Conformity: when it leads to someone drinking and driving Good Conformity: when it inhibits people from cutting in front of us in a theatre line Inconsequencel Conformity: when it disposes tennis players to wear white *Key is will your behavior and beliefs be the same when you are apart from a group. Different Varieties of Conformity... Compliance: conformity that involves publicly acting in accord with social pressure while privately disagreeing. Example: wearing a bowtie or dress Obedience: acting in accord with a direct order. Example: comply to reap an award or avoid a punishment Acceptance: conformity that involves both acting and believing in accord with social pressures. Example: believing that exercise is healthy. Kinds of Social Influence ▯ Conformity: group standards or norms ▯ Compliance: direct requests ▯ Obedience: direct commands SolomanAsch‘s Group Pressure Study • ▯ Participants judged which of three comparison lines matched the standard line • ▯ Unambiguous line judgment task • ▯ Hear others responses first • ▯ Would we ever yield to coercion to hurt another? Stanly Milgram wondered. • ▯ Start with neutral trials • ▯ 12 critical trials- everyone else gives the wrong answer o Note: control participants tested individually made essentially no errorsAuto Kinetic Phenomenon: self (auto) motion (kinetic). The apparent movement of a stationary point of light in the dark. Perhaps you have experienced this when thinking you have spotted a moving satellite in the sky, only to realize later that it was merely an isolated star. What predicts Conformity? Group Size Unanimity: conformity is reduced if the model behavior or belief is not unanimous Cohesion: the more cohesive a group the more power it gains over members Status: higher status people tend to have more impact Public Response: people conform more when they respond publicly in front of others rather than writing their answer privately No Prior Commitment: a prior commitment to a certain behavior or belief increases the likelihood that a person will stick with the commitment rather than conform. Why do people conform? Normative Influence: the desire to be accepted and fit in. Public vs. Private responses Informational Influence: the desire to be right.Ambiguous tasks, crisis situations; can insight contagion Social Power: the potential to influence other and to resist influence by others. Can arise from many sources: Coercive power, reward power, legitimate power, expert power, and referent power Obedience: changes in behavior in response to the commands of an authority figure Stanley Milgram‘s Obedience Study The Liberating effects of group influence • ▯ Conformity can also be constructive • ▯ Example: the heroic figures who rushed into the flaming world trade center were incredibly brave, but also they were partly obeying their superiors, partly conforming to group loyalty Who Conforms? Personality: good predictors of average conformity, bad predictors or specific acts of conformity. Culture: culture socializes people to be more or less socially responsive Social Roles: social roles involve a certain degree of conformity and conforming expectations is an important task when stepping into a new social role. Reactance: a motive to protect or restore ones sense of freedom. Reactance arises when someone threatens our freedom of action. Why do people obey? • ▯ Unfamiliar situations • ▯ Transfer of responsibility • ▯ Gradual, incremental nature Impression Formation and Power (Fiske) • ▯ People with power: may be less motivated to process information about subordinates accurately • ▯ Rely on stereotypes more • ▯ This may contribute to gender and ethnic discrimination in the workplace • ▯ Subordinates: more motivated to carefully observe supervisors characteristics and behavior • ▯ Focus on individuating information • ▯ May allow greater perceptions of control, and greater ability to predict important outcomes Stevens and Fiske (1995) • ▯ Manipulated power in dyads • ▯ People with power (relative to their less powerful partners) were‖ o Less interested in individuating information about their partner o Made more stereotypes, biased attributions about their partners. Sexual Harassment • ▯ men are more often in positions of power and control important outcomes • ▯ they may stereotype more and categorize women as traditions, or ̳sexy‘ types Depends on: ▯ Perceived norms o Correlational evidence ▯ Individual differences o Likelihood to sexually harass scale Particiapnts: High or Low LSH mean • ▯ Watched a manager help an attractive female with a word-processing task • ▯ The manager either was sexually harassing, or friends but professional • ▯ Then participants had to interact with the attractive confederate • ▯ Observed uninvited physical contact and sexual comments Automatic Link between power and sex (Bargh et al.) • ▯ Some men may be unaware that they associate power with sex • ▯ High LSH men have sex primed by power • ▯ When power is (unobtrusively) primed, high LSH rated a female confederate as more attractive Chapter 7: Group Influence Group: two or more people, who for longer than a few moments, interact with an influence one another and perceive one another as ̳us‘ • ▯ Members interact • ▯ Needs and goals rely on each other • ▯ Mutual influence • ▯ Establish group norms • ▯ Size: 2-6 • ▯ Cohesiveness: qualities that bind members together and promote liking Three examples of social collective influence: social facilitation, social loafing, deindividuation. Social Facilitation: how are we affected by the presence of others? Presence of others can help performance o ▯ Original meaning: the tendency of people to perform simple or well learned tasks better when others are present o ▯ Current meaning: the strengthening of likely responses owing to the presence of others Co-actors: group of people working simultaneously and individually on a non- competitive task o ▯ Cockroach‘s study (Zajonc et al.)▯ Presence of other diminishes efficiency o ▯ Winding fishing line▯ people would work faster when they worked with co- actor than they would alone o ▯ Presence of others improves the accuracy in which people do simple motor tasks o ▯ Others▯Arousal▯Dominant Response Reasons for arousal... Mere Presence: mere presence of other produces some arousal even without evaluation apprehension or arousing distracting. Ex. Cockroach behaviour Evaluation apprehension: concern for how others are evaluating us. Not just mere presence Distraction-conflict: non-social distractions Social Facilitation vs. loafing • ▯ Social Facilitation: other people are around, not participating in the activity. Individual efforts are easily observed • ▯ Social Loafing: other people are performing the same activity. Individual efforts are unclear. Social Loafing: The tendency for people to exert less effort when they pool their efforts towards a common goal than when they are individually accountable. Do individuals exert less effort in a group? • ▯ Tug of war • ▯ Tug of war apparatus (Kravits and Martin): founds that collective effort of tug of war teams was half the sum of the individual efforts. • ▯ This suggested that group members may actually be less motivated when performing additive tasks • ▯ Percentage of individual performance declines as group size increases Free riders: people who benefit from the group but give little in return. Jackon & Williams (1985) • ▯ Participants worked on simple or complex mazes, another participant did the same mazes • ▯ Evaluated individually or averaged • ▯ Participants were more relaxed when their scored were not individually evaluated Gender Differences • ▯ Who is more likely to slack off in groups where individual efforts are hidden? • ▯ Karau & Williams: 150+ studies. • ▯ Men loaf more than women. Women are more collectivist and other- oriented. Men are more individualistic Deindividualizaition: loosening of normal constraints on behavior, leading to more impulsive and deviant acts. Loss of self-awareness and evaluation apprehension; occurs in-group situations that foster anonymity and draw attention away from the individual. • ▯ Group Size • ▯ Physical anonymity • ▯ Arousing and distracting activities Diener et al(1976) trick or treaters more likely to deindividuate when they are in a group and anonymous Situational cues Johnson & Downing (1979) KKK/ Nurses ▯ In their study, the people delivering the shocks wore either Ku Klux Klan robes or nurse‘s uniforms. The subjects in the KKK costumes shocked more than control groups, and those in nurse‘s uniforms shocked less The Darkened Chamber: Gergen(1973) • ▯ Deindividuation enhanced affectionate behavior • ▯ Couples who were deindividuated using a dark chamber displayed significantly more affection behavior such as touching and caressing in comparison to individuated couples in a light chamber Uniforms ▯ Identical uniforms can reduce a sense of personal identity. Feel less accountable, act more aggressively Group Polarization: do groups intensify our opinions? Group-produced enhancement of member‘s pre-existing tendencies; a strengthening of member‘s average tendency, not a split between the groups • ▯ Two explanations for its occurance • ▯ PersuasiveArguments: Informational influence, tend to hear arguments favoring initial position; get new information • ▯ Social Comparison: normative influence, want to hold desirable opinions, try to outshine others Pluralistic Ignorance: a false impression of how other people are thinking, feeling or responding. • ▯ Believing one‘s private attitudes differ from others‘, even though one‘s public behavior are the same. Example: asking questions in class, drinking on campus • ▯ Misperceiving the norm • ▯ Don‘t realize that others advice may me more extreme than ones own • ▯ Discussion reveals this fact, and leads to more extreme recommendations Groupthink: the mode of thinking that persons engage in when concurrence seeking becomes so dominant in a cohesive in-group that it tends to override realistic appraisal of alternative courses of action. Reducing groupthink: ▯ To avoid groupthink a leader can... 1. Avoid taking a directive role 2. Solicit advice and opinions from people outside the group 3. Solicit opinions anonymously, as by secret ballot Leadership: the process by which certain group members motivate and guide the group Influence of Minority: sometimes a minority can influence and even overturn a majority person. Chapter 8:Altruism: Helping Others Altruism: a motive to increase another‘s welfare without conscious regard for one‘s self interest. Opposite of selfishness The desire to help another person even if it doesn‘t involve a benefit, or a cost to the helper. Prosocial Behavior: any act performed with the goal of benefiting another person. What motivates helping? Social Exchange theory: the theory that human interactions are transactions that aim to maximize their own rewards and minimize their costs. People will only help when the rewards outweigh the costs of helping. (that is, there is no true altruism) ▯ Distress; social approval; self-worth; reciprocity Rewards: may be internal or external. Example of External: when businesses donate money to improve their corporate image Example of Internal: blood donors, leave tips for waiters Egoism: a motive (supposedly underlying all behavior) to increase your own welfare. The opposite of altruism, which aims to increase someone else‘s welfare. Empathy andAltruism Empathy: the ability to experience events and emotions the way another person experiences them Empathy-altruism hypothesis: empathy leads to helping for purely altruistic reasons, regardless or personal gains (C. Daniel Batson) ▯ Batson believes that if someone is empathetic they will help regardless of the reward and cost. Looking forAltruism (Toi & Batson 1982) • ▯ Participants listen to ―radio programs‖ • ▯ Get on pilot program to hear • ▯ Interview with Carol, who was in a bad car accident. Now in a wheelchair • ▯ Will participants help Carol by sharing their course notes with her? • ▯ Empathy manipulations • ▯ Results of Percent agreeing to help Carol o Low Empathy: If Carol is NOT in class 35 agree to help. If Carol is in the Class 72 agree to help o High Empathy: If Carol is NOT in class 72 agree to help. If Carol is in the class 79 agree to help The Kitty Genovese Murder • ▯ Murdered while her neighbors watch • ▯ 37 witnesses, only one called the cop, upon arrival of the police. Kitty was already dead. • ▯ Bystander effect • ▯ Why didn‘t anyone call the police? Diffusion of Responsibility Bystander Intervention • ▯ Darley and
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