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Quiz 3 Review.docx

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Wilfrid Laurier University
Colleen Loomis

Quiz 3 Review Guide Heine & Norenzayan (2006): understand two stages of scientific inquiry: similarities and differences Cultural psych has contributed to psychology via stage 1 research (seeks cultural differences and establishes the boundaries of psychological phenomena), stage 2 research (underlying mechanisms of those cultural differences). what stage 1 does -identifies cultural variation in psychological processes even eye movements in scanning inanimate scenes, attention -identifying the specific situations where cultural differences occur -informs theories about universals -one aspect neglected is that we have studied east vs west differences and not much else what stage 2 does Methods: mediational studies involving trait measures, priming cultural constructs, other experimental methods Explanations for group differences: evoked culture, transmitted/ epidemiological culture, genetic variation, proximal and distal causes what is priming cultural constructs -prime constructs hypothesized to vary across cultures to see if it causes responders to respond like a different culture eg independence vs. interdependence what is a triangulation approach two cultures known to be different across many dimensions show universal trait), generalizability across three cultures-triangulation (two cultures that vary along one dimension, and another that varies along a different dimension, this may also help to explain differences found), cross- cultural study (assessing a wide array of cultures on the same measure, could also use cross species proximal and distal explanations proximal- exposure to local ecological conditions that may cause customs to be expressed differently (evoked culture), social learning from in-group members distal- population differences in frequencies of genes for certain behaviors, Gebauer et al (2012) - master this article A. narcissism: types and definitions, distinctions, motives, and research findings Agentic narcissists (satisfying self-motives of grandiosity, esteem, entitlement and power in agentic domains) eg. I am most intelligent person Communal narcissists (individuals satisfying the same self-motives in communal domains) eg. I am the most helpful person B. theory of communal narcissism Same grandiosity need, but in terms of being helpful, caring, understanding Frimer et al (2011) understand classic conceptualizations for agency and communion agency- personal wants eg. Power, intelligence communion- benevolence, justice, human welfare -classically seen as in competition with one another understand the psychological distance scheme A- Wants to increase psychological distance c- is to decrease the distance understand integrating Agency and Communion -moral exemplars able to integrate motivation and morals personality -results showed they had both communion and agency but also more integration understand how the idiographic, person approach to analysis is used in this study who was studied (ie., describe research participants) Moral exemplars who received Caring Canadian awards for voluntary service in community or for humanitarian cause Compared to volunteers matched demographically how were they studied Filled out surveys and a life review interview how were data coded: macroanalytic and micro analytic Undergraduate research assistant coded based on predetermined schemes Another coder goes over for implicit a and c motivations microanalytic findings (see Figure 2 and text pp. 157 - 158) higher levels of both A and C in exemplars be able to apply the findings. For example, is it possible for someone high on agency to also be high on communion? McAdams and Pals (2006) – conceptual model Personality is conceived as: 1. An individual’s unique variation on the general evolutionary design for human nature 2. Dispositional traits (the big five) 3. Characteristic adaptations 4. Self-defining life narratives that individuals construct to make meaning and identity 5. Situated in culture and social context March 17 – all points in the lecture slides  PERSONALITY STRUCTURE  Theorists differed in degree to which they abstracted away from their data when positing structural variables  social-cognitivist’s standards, goals, beliefs vs. psychoanalytic theory’s id, ego, superego  Implications for measurement  Theories also differed in complexity of structural organization  PROCESS  Diversity in motivational models  Tension reduction  Drive for growth  Consistency  Maybe all three models are relevant  Maybe two kinds are operating, but are in conflict  Maybe two kinds combine to support one another  Diversity of models reflects historical context  Theories devoted less attention to growth and development than would be ideal  Differences between theories concerned:  Belief in utility of the concept of stages of development  Belief in the importance of early experiences for later development  Many questions remain unanswered  Diversity in the interpretations of the nature of psychopathology  In evaluating theories, consider how central psychopathology is for the theory and variables that are emphasized  Many contemporary theorists pursue the challenge of explaining change  SCIENTIFIC OBSERVATION: THE DATABASE  Field as a whole can be applauded for the diversity and objectivity of its large database  Ways in which the field has done less well  Relative lack of idiographic research methods  Resear
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