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Terms and theories.docx

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Diane Glebe

Moral Development: Terms and Theories Morality  relative goodness of people as shown through their behaviours and beliefs 3 key terms:  values: specific beliefs about the relative worth of certain behaviours or attitudes  morals: standards of behaviour based on certain values  conscience: integrated sets of beliefs about right and wrong, an integration of morals or standards of behaviour theories of moral development (moral reasoning)  2 main theories  cognitively oriented developmental theories o sequential changes in moral reasoning related to cognitive development Piaget  understanding of game rules  children judge intentions and consequences of characters in situations  John accidentally breaks 15 cups helping his mother on his way to dinner, while Henry breaks 1 cup in the process of stealing some jam. Which boy is naughtier and why?  3 stages of morality o pre-moral period ( toddler/preschool)  egocentric, highly changeable  immediate interests and desires  not aware of socially defined rules o heteronomous morality (5-10 years)  rules handed down by authority  permanent, unchangeable  require strict obedience  observable consequences/reactions of people  outwardly determined o autonomous morality (10+ years)  different people have different perspectives  rules created and agreed upon cooperatively  flexible  intentions recognized  individualized sense of right and wrong Lawrence Kohlberg (1958,1976) continuation of Piaget > age range and studied longitudinally life-span oriented, all boys ages 13-16 moral judgement interview  situation of moral dilemma  choose and justify  no right or wrong answer, what's important is the reasoning because it determines the level of moral reasoning 3 sequential stages/levels with 2 stages in each and no attached ages:  level 1: pre-conventional moral reasoning o externally controlled o rules of authority o external/ tangible outcomes o stage 1: punishment and obedience orientation  punishment= bad; reward= good
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