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cognitive development.docx

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Diane Glebe

cognitive development throughout childhood changes in thinking cognitive development theorists  cognitive development occurs in a set of predictable, invariant, and distinct changes  Piaget is one cognitive developmental theorist Jean Piaget (1896-1980)  stage theory o at each stage new abilities emerge allowing for major reorganization in child's thinking o thinking at one stage very different from thinking at next stage  sees cognitive development as discontinuous  changes and stages not genetically determined (nature)  cognitive development depends on brain maturation and active interaction and manipulation with the environment  children actively construct new and more elaborate ways of thinking  knowledge comes from action concepts/terms of Piaget  schemes/schemata (scheme/schema) o organized information put into categories o as we get older our schemes begin to incorporate more things, or they can get more specific o they change and develop based on our experience o don't just pertain to objects, can pertain to concepts as well  adaptation o tendency of organisms change in response to their environment  assimilation o process of incorporating new information into an existing scheme o don't just take in new material, we filter and modify it so that it can fit with a pre- existing schemes  accommodation o changing an existing scheme to fit a new object o helps with distinguishing things  equilibration o when a person encounters a situation that can't be handled by an existing scheme, it creates disequilibrium, so we reduce it by creating a new scheme, or we adapt the old one until the material fits o want to restore balance o process of accommodation Piaget's stages of cognitive development  4 stages  in order  no skipping  pass through at different rates o can be at different stages in different areas  decalages o at different stages on different tasks o different stages in same task o "shifting" especially at stage transitions stage 1: sensory-motor stage (birth- 2 years)  sensory-motor intelligence  infants learn associations between their motor behaviours and the resulting reactions  use their senses  extensive cognitive changes happen during this stage  Reflexive schemes (birth-1 month) o 1st schemes formed from inborn reflexes o reflexes become self initiated activity  e.g. sucking o assimilation is the most prominent activity o accommodation will occur as well  Primary circular reactions (1-4 months) o infant has a new experience by chance and tries to repeat it (e.g. thumb sucking) o involves organizing (bringing together) o 2 previously separate body movements/ schemes (e.g. repeatedly bringing hand to face) o involves parts of infants own body  Secondary circular reactions (4-8 months) o infant discovers and reproduces an interesting even outside of self o where the event and action occur by chance o infant is coordinating their own movements to make something external happen o "making interesting sights last" or "repeating interesting events"  The coordination of secondary schemes (8-12 months)
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