Study Guides (238,085)
Canada (114,909)
Psychology (633)
PS276 (19)

Final Exam Study Package.docx

79 Pages
Unlock Document

Wilfrid Laurier University
Bruce Mc Kay

PS276OCFinal Exam Study PackagethThursday April 24 2014Chapter 6SchoolsIntroductionAdolescents spend at least 13 of their time in schoolsshapes achievement and motivationshapes social networks and interpersonal relationshipsThe way a school is organized is highly influentialschools are organized according to needs and demands of the communityschools are environments created to serve specific populationsThe Broader Context of Secondary EducationVirtually all young people ages 1417 are enrolled in schoolchildren also spend more days per year in school than in the pastin the 1920 school year it was 162 dayschildren stay in school later now tooThe Origins of Compulsory EducationIndustrialization urbanization and immigrationIndustrialization the role of children changed worker to childproduction weighed heavily on machines rather than kidsneeded workers with more skills than children hadfocused on getting children away from dangers of working tooalso wanted to protect job security did this with child labour lawsUrbanizationindustrialization brought urbanization and several waves of immigrantsnew problems for urban centerssocial reformers thought schools would improve life circumstances of poor and working classesalso became a means of social control took people off streetsImmigrationschools made sure the children were AmericanizedThe Rise of Comprehensive High SchoolthPrior to 20 century high school was for the eliteBy 1920 high school prepped youth for modern society1920s marked rise of comprehensive high schoolthBy mid20 century high school focused on intellectual development of all adolescentsother countries separate college bound and noncollege bound kidsComprehensive High School an educational institution that evolved during the first half of the th20 century offering a varied curriculum and designed to meet the needs of a diverse population of adultsSchool Reform Past and Presentschools are potentially important tools of social interventioncoop held prepare for work preventative interventions for problems such as AIDS violence and drug abuseNo Child Left Behind Act NCLBRequired that schools create and enforce academic standards by annually testing all standardsschools that fell behind could improve but if they didnt theyd closevery problematic in practicemath and reading were the only things tested so why teach anything elsecritical thinking could not be testedwho decides what level of achievement is goodwhat stops schools from helping their kids cheat or keeping the lower performing kids away on testing daynonwhite and ethnic minorities have the lowest achievementachievement gap between white and nonwhite youngsters grew during the 90s especially in large urban districtsAmerican and Asian students outperform Black and Hispanic in all levels especially math and readingWhy has school reform failed1 Concentration of poverty creates situational problems that few schools are equipped and able to addressstudents are afraid of being victimized2 Many urban districts are burdened by huge administrative beaurocracies that often impede reform and hinder educational innovation3 Students report less feelings of belonging to school less engagement and less achievement4 Erosion of job opportunitiesless devotion to schoolThe Social Organization of Schools5 key aspects of school organization1School and classroom size2Different approaches to age grouping3Tracking or the grouping of students in classes according to academic abilities4The ethnic composition of schools5Public vs private schools1 School and Class SizeLarger schools offer a more varied curriculumLarger schools arent better thoughsense of community is importantstudent engagement is weaker in large schoolsmost students are actively involved in small schoolsSmall class sizes are beneficial in the early years up to grade 3all remedial classes benefit when theyre small2 Age Grouping and School TransitionsTwoschool systems show higher achievement and fewer behavioural problems than 3 school systemtransitioning between schools result in grade drops and behaviour problemsstudents prior records affect their transitions too having friends and being socially richbeing more socially richmore vulnerable adolescents suffer moreparent involvement and supportbetter adolescent adjustment3 TrackingTracking the practice of separating students into ability groups so they take classes with peers at the same levelno definite results of pros and cons of trackingtracking allows for teachers to design lessons for their abilitieslower tracks get poorer education thoughtracking can also separate people into different subcultures sociallytracking also may discriminate against minoritieshard to change tracks once on onepeople on high tracks do well low tracks do poor and middle tracks have no resultsmixed tracks teachers often compare studentseducators have tended to favour mainstreaming over separate classrooms for people with special needspsychological costs of separating are badBig Fishlittle pond effect when individuals compare themselves to the high achievers then feel worse about themselves 4 Ethnic compositiondesegregation still has mixed effectsselfesteem is higher when they attend a school where they are the majority5 Alternatives to Public Schoolsstudents test schools are higher in private schools esp catholic but this is probably more because of the characteristics of students who attendfamily background is found to impact achievement more than quality of schoolvalues are practiced at school home and communityprivate schools have more homework and are more disciplinedClassroom Climatehow teachers interact with students how classroom time is used and what sorts of standards and expectations teachers hold for their studentssocial climate that matters
More Less

Related notes for PS276

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.