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PS284- Final Exam Notes

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Department
Psychology
Course
PS284
Professor
Irene Cheung
Semester
Fall

Description
PS284 1 Final Exam Study Notes WEEK 9 – MOTIVATION (Ch. 9) TYPES OF MOTIVATION Motivation: influences our behaviour in 4 ways: o Attention  what goal we want to focus on o Effort  how we pursue the task o Persistence  how long we will pursue it o Strategy  how we attain it - is a force that: 1) Energizes & causes ppl to act (AROUSAL)  ↓ discrepancy on where we are vs. where we want to be 2) Directs behaviour to the attainment of specific goals (DIRECTION) 3) Sustains the effort expended in reaching those goals (INTENSITY)  How long can someone con’t to put forth energy in attaining the goal Intrinsic Motivation: when an individual wants to do something & motivated by internal rewards (ex. Sense of accomplishment & competence) - Direct relation b/w worker & task - Self-applied Extrinsic Motivation: Someone tries to motivate an individual to do something & motivated by external rewards (ex. $$, praise) - Comes from work environment (external to the particular task) Note: - Need more than extrinsic rewards to motivate workers o If you rely too much on extrinsic reward, intrinsic motivation ↓s - How can intrinsic motivation be promoted in the workplace? o For workers: give them some control (autonomy) MOTIVATION THEORIES: NEED THEORIES - Try to specify the kinds of needs ppl have - Identify the conditions under which they will be motivated to satisfy needs in a way that contributes to performance :. Makes them a better performer at work - Concerned w/ what motivates workers - What are needs? o Physiological & psychological wants/desires that ppl can satisfy by acquiring certain incentives or achieving certain goals o NEEDS  BEHAVIOUR  INCENTIVES & GOALS - Implications for Managers o Appreciate diversity  Need to be good at evaluating the needs of individual employees  Important for employers to survey their workers on what they really want  Offer incentives & goals that meet employees’ needs o Appreciate intrinsic motivation  Emphasize the importance of higher-order needs PS284 2 Final Exam Study Notes  Meet workers’ basic needs  Enrich jobs  more stimulating, challenging, ↑ autonomy  Attention to design of career paths Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory - 5 need categories that form a hierarchy of needs - Go from basic human needs (“deficiency needs”) to more complex higher-order needs (“growth needs”) - Must satisfy lower-order needs before satisfying higher-order needs - Unlikely for a low worker to have satisfied top 2 needs - Executives more likely to fulfill all 5 levels - ISSUE: Model assumes that ppl have the same needs - Research support o Theory makes 2 general predictions  Needs can be placed in 1 of 5 categories  As needs in a category are satisfied, they should become less important, whereas needs yet to be satisfied should become more important o Weak support for these hypotheses  there is support that there may be 2 types of needs (not necessarily 5 types) o Hard to find link b/w needs & behaviours McClelland’s Achievement Motivation Theory - Theory more comprehensive than Maslow’s  specific to work motivation - 3 needs central to work motivation 1) Need for Achievement: drive to succeed & get the job done  Associated w/ being task-oriented Need for  Like to get feedback each level  Love to be challenged can vary per 2) Need for Power: need to direct & control the activities of others & to be influential person (status-oriented)  2 types of power Personal power, Institutional power 3) Need for Affiliation: desire to be liked & accepted by others  Striving for friendships  Motivated by cooperation more so than competition - Match needs of individuals to type of job o Those who succeed in managerial roles are high in Nach & Np but low on Naff - Application of theory to ↑ achievement motivation - Too high achievement can make them arrogant & workaholics o Does not mean they love their job  can be more stressful for them b/c they need to put in more effort o Achievement +vely correlated w/ high incomes o May not be as effective in team situations o Not good at work delegation - High affiliation o Only cooperate when they feel safe & secure o Work best in roles w/ lots of interpersonal relationships - Research Support o Results generally supportive o Support that particular needs can motivate a person to work better in order to fulfill the need PS284 3 Final Exam Study Notes JOB CHARACTERSTICS THEORY (JCT) OF MOTIVATION - Hackman & Oldham - Identifies the work conditions under which workers will become internally motivated to perform effectively at their jobs - Identifies the ways to redesign jobs to improve motivation - Proposes that employee motivation is a function of the interaction among job characteristics, employee characteristics & employee’s psychological states - Job characteristics: task identity, skill variety, task significance, autonomy, feedback - Job characteristics  3 psychological states  personal & work outcomes (that incl. motivation, performance, job satisfaction & reduced absenteeism/turnover) - Intrinsic motivation should be highest when psychological states are high - Problems o Focus on job characteristics when the nature of work is always changing may be a limitation o Doesn’t focus on social factors o Assumes that all employees value the same job characteristics to the same degree - Research Support o Reasonably valid - Implications for Managers o Identify factors in the job that needs to be ∆d o Redesign the jobs to make them more motivating MOTIVATION THEORIES: PROCESS THEORIES - Concentrate on how various factors motivate workers - Theories should be seen as complementary rather than contradictory Reinforcement Theory - Based on operant conditioning whereby behaviour is motivated by consequences - Modify employees’ work behaviour using various techniques o Reinforcer: outcome that follows a behaviour & serves to ↑ the motivation to perform that behaviour again Result is to ↑ a  Positive Reinforcement: “rewards” that are desirable (ex. Praise, pay ↑, $$) behaviour  Negative Reinforcement: lead to avoidance of an existing –ve state or condition Result is to ↓ a behaviour  Punishment: unpleasant outcome that directly follows the performance of a behaviour (only ↓s a behaviour, does not specify the type of behaviour you want to occur)  you can give a penalty or you can remove something good that was already there (stimulus) o Reinforcement is a better motivational technique than punishment  punishing workers all the time can make them hostile - Implications for Managers o Understand what motivates employees o How to implement reinforcers into job & avoid punishment (make sure you are not rewarding bad behaviour) o Must be applied consistently & fairly so that employees understand that certain behaviours are always rewarded/punished PS284 4 Final Exam Study Notes MOTIVATION THEORIES: EXPECTANCY THEORY - Victor Vroom - Motivation is determined by the outcomes that ppl expect to occur as a result of their actions on the job - Ppl will be motivated to perform a work activity if they think it is attractive & that they can accomplish the activity - The attractiveness of a work activity is dependent on the extent to which ppl think that it will lead to favourable personal outcomes - Theory based on ppl’s perception of the outcomes & how they perceive themselves to be productive - Research Support o Rather complex model (difficult to test), but there is some support o Evidence that valence of first-level outcomes depend on the extent to which they lead to favourable second-level outcomes o Studies have shown that ppl have trouble thinking in expectancies (probabilities of outcomes)  also difficulty in thinking how attractive an outcome is o But, experts in motivation generally accept this theory - Implications for Managers o **Boost expectancies  Ensure employees can achieve those 1 level outcomes  Clear procedures  Strong understanding of work expectations o Clarify reward contingencies  Ensure that path b/w performance & reward is clear o Appreciate diverse needs PS284 5 Final Exam Study Notes MOTIVATION THEORY: EQUITY THEORY - Goal: to maintain equitable exchange in relationship - When ratios are equal  perceive fair & equitable exchange w/ org. = job satisfaction - When ratios are unequal  perceive inequity = job dissatisfaction - When relationship is inequitable, ppl tend to do one of the following: 1) Distort personal contribution/outcome 2) Distort someone else’s contributions/outcomes 3) Compare themselves to a diff. group to make thinks seem more fair 4) ∆ their contributions/outcomes 5) Leave relationship - It’s not clear when ppl might ∆ their behaviours - Tend to compare someone of same sex - Research Support o Theory supports work in underpayment o Weak support for theory on work looking at overpayment - Implications for Managers o Avoid underpaying employees as it is associated w/ -ve outcomes for the employee & org. o However, overpaying employee does not necessarily lead to the expected motivational effects o Managers need to understand social comparison processes  Understand what/how ppl think things as fair o Company should review salaries annually & make sure they are competitive MOTIVATION THEORIES: GOAL-SETTING THEORY - Emphasizes the role of specific, challenging performance goals & workers’ commitment to those goals as important for motivation Goals Mechanisms Performance •Specific •Direction •achievable & measurable •Effort •Challenging •Persistence •Goal Commitment •Task strategies •Feedback (accurate, specific, timely) - Problem: often times goals are vague or non-existent - Research Support o Specific & difficult goals  better performance & productivity in diff. types of tasks & occupations o +ve LT effects PS284 6 Final Exam Study Notes  Ex. Weyerhauser Company (forest company, truck drivers, max load on truck) o Success of goal-setting dependent on various factors  When ppl don’t have the knowledge or the necessary skill, & you have a specific challenging goal = ↓ performance  Straight-forward task & specific goal = better performance  If learning task, set learning goals - Implications for Managers o Set specific & challenging goals  Take into account level difficulty of task & skill set of employees o Provide ongoing feedback o Knowing what kinds of goals to set - Applications o SMART goals  specific, measurable, attainable, relevant, time-bound o Mgm’t by Objectives (MBO)  systemic, collaborative, progressive, on-going feedback process 1) Manager & employee meet to develop p& agree on employee objectives for the coming months  Involves specifying objective, time frames, priorities, & evaluations 2) Periodic meetings to see if employee is meeting objectives; adjustments can be made to deal w/ needs & issues 3) Appraisal meeting to evaluate whether objectives have been met 4) MBO cycle is repeated MOTIVATION THEORIES: SELF-DETERMINATION THEORY - Intrinsic motivation can be developed & maintained when 3 basic psychological needs are met: o Autonomy  can make own choices/decisions o Competence  can do something well  Perceived competence is the most important (worker has to think they can do it)  To ↑ competence  Give +ve feedback; be encouraging  Think about the level of difficulty you are setting your employee up w/ o Relatedness  can feel connected to others  Improve interpersonal climate in the work group (do things that ↑ +ve relations amongst co-workers) Amotivation: We don’t really care about it Regulatory Style: what regulates our level of motivation PS284 7 Final Exam Study Notes External Regulation: doing it b/w they are controlled  someone is telling them to do it Introjected Regulation: some internal aspect (↓ anxiety, etc.), but doing it b/c told to Identified Regulation: value a behavioural goal (do see it as important, but not purely on intrinsic level) Integrated Regulation: integrated w/ our values & beliefs SUMMARY OF MOTIVATION THEORIES - Theories help us understand diff. parts of the motivation process - Ex. The specific goals that we set (goal-setting theory) can influence what kinds of 1 st level outcomes we pursue (expectancy theory) & in turn, this influences our motivation for pursuing those outcomes, which then influences our performance o Depending on the outcomes we expect, it can influence our performance - Depending on the outcome (extrinsic vs. intrinsic rewards), our needs may or may not be met (need theories), which can then affect our perceptions of equity (equity theory) & job satisfaction - Needs, perceptions of equity & job satisfaction can affect subsequent motivation WEEK 10 – LEADERSHIP (Ch. 10) WHAT IS LEADERSHIP? - The influence that particular individuals exert on the goal achievement of others in an organizational context - Concept started in WWI when USA had problems identifying ppl to fulfill leadership roles in the military - Social influence process PS284 8 Final Exam Study Notes - Involves persuasion - Elicits voluntary action from followers o Voluntary action separates leadership from other influences of authority - Leads to purposeful & goal-directed behaviour - Cannot exist unless there are more than one followers TRAIT THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP – are leaders born? - What traits make good leaders? - Traits: personal characteristics of individuals - Distinguish b/w leaders & followers, &lower- & higher-level leaders - Some traits are associated w/ leadership, but many are not o Can be physical characteristics, personality or intellectual ability - Traits often assess by orgs. To measure leadership o Helps in hiring & promotion decisions - Link b/w leadership & IQ is not as strong - Common Leadership traits: (ppl w/ these characteristics tended to score higher on leadership tests) o Intelligence o Energy o Self-confidence o Dominance o Emotional Stability o Motivation to Lead o Honesty & Integrity o Nach - Of the Big 5  Extroversion, Agreeableness, Openness to experience (are for leadership) - LIMITATIONS: o Not best way to understand & improve leadership o Hard to know whether traits make the leader or opportunity for leadership produces the traits (doesn’t show causal effect) o Do we really know what ppl w/ leadership traits do to lead successfully o Does not take the situation into account BEHAVIOURAL THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP - What are the behaviours that successful leaders engage in? o Looks at how these behaviours influence performance & satisfaction - Ohio State Leadership Studies (1940s) o Employees described supervisors on behavioural dimensions o Results showed 2 basic kids of behaviour:  Consideration: approachable, shows concern & respect for employees  More strongly related to job & leader satisfaction, motivation, & leader effectiveness  Considerate leaders are egalitarian  Initiating Structure: concentrates on group goals, clearly defines roles & tasks  Very task oriented  More strongly correlated w/ leader & group performance o The 2 dimensions are compatible w/ each other  A leader can show both dimensions PS284 9 Final Exam Study Notes  The importance of the dimension is going to depend on the situation - Leader Reward Behaviour o Employees get compliments, tangible benefits (ex. Gift certificates), & deserved special treatment - Leadership Punishment Behaviour o Employees are reprimanded/given bad task assignments o Rewards, praises, promotions are w/held - Important b/c: o Relates to ppl’s perceptions of justice o Gives person sense of control b/c they know/understand how to get reward/avoid punishment - Recent study shows that these behaviours tend to be effective when contingent on behaviour & performance o Punishment contingent on behaviour = better performance o Both related to employees perceptions (ex. Trust in the leaders), attitudes (ex. Job satisfaction), & behaviour o How they are administered is extremely important - When rewards/punishments are not based on behaviour, employees can react –vely SITUATIONAL THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP - Effectiveness of a leadership style depends on the setting Fiedler’s Contingency Theory - Relation b/w leadership orientation & group effectiveness depends on the extent to which the situation is good for leadership (how favourable the situation is) - Leadership measured by having leaders describe their least preferred co-worker (LPC)  could be current or past; someone leader has a difficult time working w/ - High LPC  relationship oriented o Still abel to say good things about the LPC - Low LPC  task oriented o Unable to say good things about LPC (no good at job, then he/she is no good at all) - Looks at LPC as an attitude of a leader - Favourable situation: o leader-member relationship is good o task is structured clear goals, performance standards, expectations o strong position of power  formal position as a leader House’s Path-Goal Theory - looking for the situations where leader behaviour is most effective - the most important activities of leaders  clarify paths to goals of interest to employees - Theory is better for predicting job satisfaction & acceptance of leader, but not so much on performance PS284 10 Final Exam Study Notes LEADERSHIP BEHAVIOUR EMPLOYEE OUTCOMES Directive SITUATIONAL FACTORS Supportive Employee Characteristics Job Satisfaction Acceptance of Leader Achievemtn Oriented Environmental Factors Paritciative Effort - Leader behaviour has to be perceived as immediately satisfying or leading to future Components satisfaction of an Directive: let employees know what is expected of them; same idea as initiating structure effective Supportive: concerned w/ interpersonal relationships leader Participative: consult w/ employees about work-related issues Achievement: encourage high effort & accomplishment Employee Characteristics: - Ex. Those who want to do well - Ex. Those who prefer to be told what to do  direct leadership may be the more appropriate - Ex. Those who have low task ability Environmental Factors: - Ex. Tasks are clear & routine (supportive leadership) - Ex. Tasks are challenging & ambiguous (directive & participative leadership) - Ex. Frustrating & dissatisfying jobs (supportive  but might not ↑ effort ppl are willing o put into the job) LEADER-MEMBER EXCHANGE (LMX) THEORY - Focuses on leader-member relationship rather than leader behaviours
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