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Sport Psych Exam Notes.docx

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Richard Ennis

Sport Psych Exam Notes Justice in Sport - Assumptions of Sport Competition o May the best person/team win o Competition for finite resource (outcome) o Establish an exam (game) to determine the best o Parameters established by constitutive rules/codes designed to:  Protect assumptions of the game  Provide a legitimate and fair test o Sport environment (justice) * Athlete (who’s best?)  performance (the exam)  outcomes - Outcome Attributions o Winners  Outcome expectations confirmed  No need to ask “why?”  Minimal need for attributional search  Bias for internal attribution  Satisfied with distributive justice (what happened, concerned with outcomes)  No need to examine procedural justice (how it happened, how did that outcome get determined? Performance based) o Losers  Outcome expectations disconfirmed  Must ask “why?” – did I deserve to lose?  Must conduct attributional search  Bias for external attribution  Dissatisfied with distributive justice  Need to examine procedural justice - Consequences of Perceived Injustice o Affective  Dissatisfaction  Frustration  Anger  Hate o Behavioral  Conflict/violence  Protest  Withdrawal  Imitative deviance (if someone can get away with something and not get a penalty for it, I’m also going to do it) o Cognitive  Distrust  Suspicion  Confusion  Attributions (internal vs. external) - Brickman’s Hypothesis (1977) o There should be MORE aggression and violence in sport  Especially with contact sports o Sport justice MORE effective than government justice o Exemplary use of equity-based and deterrent- based justice - Functions of Justice 1. Simplify settlement of competition (without being a hindrance) 2. Assure consistency for all participants across time 3. Avert hostility and negative consequences 4. Promote adherence and sportsmanship (maintain harmony and social fabric) 5. Control information gathering (i.e., reduce bias) – videotapes, ball and strike counter - Functions of Rules o Distributive Justice  Fair outcomes  Deservedness based on ability and execution  Improve probability that WINNER is the “best” o Procedural justice  Fair process (exam)  Balance of competition (“even playing field”)  Improve probability that LOSER accepts outcome - Types of Justice o Purpose  Equity-based: restoring fairness; regulating behavior  Deterrent-based: preventing deviance; maintaining assumptions o Determination  Equity-based: based on consequences; proportional to violation  Deterrent-based: based on intention; disproportionate to violation o Administration  Equity-based: immediate; sometimes at discretion of victim  Deterrent-based: delayed; enforced by authority o Consequences  Equity-based: preservation of interaction; no stigma for offender  Deterrent-based: disruption of interaction; stigma for offender - Equity-Based Rules o Concerned with gray line between constitutive and normative behavior o For constitutive, normative, and counter- normative behavior/rules (N/A for counter- normative) o Normative – basically everybody does it. These violations are not to undermine the assumptions of the game (e.g. layups are almost always travelling) o Equity-based = this cheating/breaking the rules only offsets the balance of justice a little bit. Penalty that restores the justice just a bit (2 minute penalty) o Based on the tilting of the scales o Minimum interference with playing the game o Quick and immediate o Sometimes at discretion of victim o Counter-normative = kinds of behavior that violate the assumptions of the game. They are rare and when they happen, it’s a big deal (e.g. hockey player who kicks another player with skate on) o Concerned with the boundary between constitutive behaviors and normative behaviors (gray line)…vast majority of game infractions o Differentiate legal vs. illegal and a majority of infractions happen here - Equity-Based Rules o Not applicable to constitutive behavior o Concerned with line between normative and counter-normative behavior o We want to deter the kind of counter-normative behavior o We may be concerned with restoring the scale, but we will probably even go overboard o Penalty is so severe that you definitely don’t want to display this counter-normative behavior o Usually initiated by on-ice officials, but leaguer officials will probably be involved o Game made stop o Stigmatization goes along with this (e.g., if you’re the curler that hit the opponent with the broom, that will stick with you and everyone will know about it) o Differentiate acceptable vs. unacceptable and eliminate or limit infractions - Designing and Enforcing Rules o Be fair  Rule makers  Duty of rule-makers  Design fair and adequate rules  Decide what rule should accomplish  Equity of deterrence?  Evaluate effectiveness of rules  Reliance on precedent  Provide due process  Take into account the human element of normative violations o Apply fair  Game officials  Duty of game officials  Avoid bias and minimize errors  Improve ability of officials  Selection, training, evaluation  Improve quality of application  Physical changes (e.g., numbers – 2,3, or 6 umpires - , positioning, minor officials – line judges, goal judges)  Aids (e.g., replays, technology, visual aids)  Apply rules across players, teams, etc.  Improve enforcement and avoid confusion (e.g., raised chair in tennis and volleyball; foul poles and clickers in baseball; touch pads in swimming; blue crease in hockey) o Appear fair  All officials  Duty of all officials  Must be above suspicion  Knowledge of game from all perspectives  Communication  Tolerance for perpetual bias  Providing “voice”  Publicizing efforts to “be fair” and “apply fair” Group Dynamics: Leadership - The Leaderless group o Individual motivation  Egoistic, self-interest  Seeking fulfillment of personal needs and goals  Maximum benefits with minimum contributions  Free-riders and “me” players o Low cohesion  Pulling in separate directions  Social loafing o Dominance o Coercing group for personal benefit o RULER - Leadership Definitions o Leadership is getting others to want to of what you want them to do - Eisenhower o Leadership is persuading other people to set aside for a period of time their individual concerns and to pursue a common goal that is important for the responsibilities and welfare of a group – Hogan, Curphy & Hogan, 1994 - Ruler versus Leader o Ruler  Personal goals primary  Above group members  Exempt from rules and norms  Emphasis on reward and coercive sources of influence  Me, me, me o Leader  Group goals primary  A group member  Model adherence to rules and norms  Emphasis on referent, expert, and legitimate sources of influence  We, we, we - Potential and Actual Performance o Potential performance – coordination losses – motivation losses = actual performance - Leader Roles o Task  Strategist  Boss  Critic  Coordination processes o Social  Teacher  Salesperson  Psychologist  Motivation processes - Problems for Leadership 1. Communicate clear mission, sense of purpose, goal 2. Identify available resources and talent 3. Acquire available resources and talent 4. Develop talent 5. Plan and organize 6. Coordinate work activities 7. Minimize and resolve group conflicts 8. Inform and involve groups in all of the above - Five Sources of Influence (French and Raven, 1959) o Expert – knowledge, skill, talent o Legitimate – formal position/role o Referent – liked/respected by members o Reward – ability to reinforce o Coercive – ability to punish - Tradition: Inherited Right o Leaders are born o Birth right o Past: royalty, divine selection, Social Darwinism o Current: race, gender o Function: promotes stability, order, status quo o Rulers rather than leaders - Trait: Leader Personality o Leaders are born o The “Great Person” theory  Assumption that all groups and situations require the same leadership o Leaders are genetically endowed with the “right stuff” (special traits and attributes) o Little research support except for confidence and dominance o Led to focus on leader behavior - Trait: Charismatic Leadership o Leaders are born o Modern version of the “Great Person” theory o Aka transformational leadership o Subordinates are motivated by devotion to serve the leader o Characteristics  High self-confidence and need for dominance  Strong conviction in beliefs  Promotes a “transcendental goal”  A moral mission  Attractive  Good oratorical skills o More common in voluntary groups (e.g., religious, charitable) - Formal: Coordinator/Manager o Leaders are bred o Assumption that leadership can be learned through training and experience o Focus on management and bureaucracy o Emphasis on task-oriented leadership (coordination, planning, organization) o Positive: more inclusive o Negative: still assumption that same leadership applies to all situations - Human Relations: Motivator o Leaders are bred o Focus on social-oriented leadership (supportive, sympathetic) o Motivational leadership - Contingency: Interactionist Perspective o Leaders are born, bred, and called upon o The right person at the right time o Effective leadership determined by situational demands o Fred Fiedler’s Least Preferred Coworker (LPC)  Task-oriented (authoritarian) leadership most effective when group needs coordination  Relation-oriented (democratic) leadership most effective when group needs motivation o House’s Path-Goal
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