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Final

Chapter 9 - Final Exam .docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PS287
Professor
Glen Gorman
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter Nine: Romantic Relationships INTRODUCTION - The idea of marriage based on love develop in the late 19 century into the 20 century - This coincided with women’s increase in freedom and status RELATIONSHIP DEVELthMEth th - Among 7 , 9 and 11 grades:  76% say they will probably get married  5% say they expect not to marry Characteristics Desired in a Mate - Women seeking men provide information about their physical attractiveness  These women seek men with education and a good work ethic - Men seeking women provide information about their financial status and work ethic  These men seek women who are an attractive mate - Individuals look for someone with similar interests (similarity principle) Evidence - Men and women have similar reasons for entering into romantic relationships - Primary factors: support and companionship  Desire partners who are honest, warm, affectionate, kind and share their same interests - Major difference is men desire physical attractiveness while women desire intelligence and occupational status - META-ANALYSIS from 20 years ago: compared the characteristics that women and men desire in a mate  Females more likely to emphasize socioeconomic status and ambition  Females only somewhat more likely to emphasize intelligence and character  No sex differences in the value attached to personality  Men more likely to emphasize physical attractiveness - A more recent review shows that these differences still exist and are consistent across a variety of cultures when using self-report measures - Study of single men and women:  Men more likely than women to value physical attractiveness in selecting a long- term mate  Most important characteristics desired in a mate were caring/loving, funny and loyal/honest  Women have higher relationship standards than men - An fMRI methodology study shoed that physical attractiveness has more reward value for men than women - Study: College students in the United States, Netherlands and Korea were asked how distressed they would be if their partner became interested in someone else who outperformed them on a number of dimensions  Males said they would be more distressed at rivals who outperformed them in terms of job prospects  Females said they would be more distressed at rivals who were physically more attractive - 2001 National Survey of 20- to 29-year-old women:  80% believe it is more important that a husband communicate his innermost feelings than make a good living - Seventh through twelfth graders revealed that romantic love, faithfulness and commitment were the most important values of heterosexuals, gay men, lesbians and bisexuals - Gay men and lesbians look for the same characteristics in mates as do heterosexuals— affection, shared interests, similarity and dependability - There is no evidence that lesbians value a mate’s resources as do heterosexual women  Status is less important to relationships among sexual minorities - Like heterosexual men, homosexual men value a mate’s physical attractiveness, whereas lesbians do not - STUDY: personal advertisements placed by women  Lesbians placed the least importance on physical appearance  Bisexuals placed the most importance  Heterosexual women fell in between the two groups - Having a mate of the same race was viewed as less important to gays, lesbians and bisexuals compared to heterosexuals - Lesbians are more likely than gay men to match on similar personalities - A concern of mate selection is that people are asked to evaluate a single characteristic at a time, which is not how mates are selected in the real world - Trade-offs are often made depending on the trait’s importance and the degree to which it is possessed in a mate  I.e., you prefer someone who is attractive and nice but if given the choice you would prefer nice and average looking or hostile and attractive - STUDY examining tradeoffs:  Women’s and men’s choices depend on whether the relationship is short term or long term  Attractiveness or warmth—Men more likely to chose attractiveness in short-term encounters but warmth in long-term  Status and warmth—Both women and men chose warm in short-term and long- term relationships - ANOTHER STUDY examined tradeoff issues by giving men and women ―budgets‖ in mate selection:  Participants asked to design an ideal mate and given various amounts of ―mate dollars‖ to purchase these characteristics  Small budget: women emphasized resources and men emphasized attractiveness  Large budget: women’s and men’s preferences became more similar, especially in long-term relationships Explanations There are three explanations that can explain a males preference for physical attractiveness and a females for financial security 1) EVOLUTION THEORY - Women and men behave in ways that will maximize the survival of their genes - Physical attractiveness and youthfulness are indicators of fertility - Financial resources help to ensure the survival of offspring - Idea are based on the parental investment model—women will invest more in their offspring then will men because they have less opportunity than men to reproduce - Evolutionary theory would predict that more attractive women end up with financially stable men and that younger women are more likely paired with older men  I.e., Hugh Hefner and Donald trump—wealth men with young attractive females  This is known as the potentials-attract hypothesis - This hypothesis has been refuted by a number of studies and the similarity hypothesis prevailed  No correspondence between attractiveness in women and desire for status in men  No correspondence between status in men and desire for attractiveness in women  The high someone rated themselves on an attribute, the greater their desire for that attribute in a mate  Study of newlyweds showed no evidence that attractive females were more likely to end up with financially stable males 2) SOCIAL ROLE THEORY - Suggests that a society’s emphasis on a distinct division of labor between the sexes will be directly linked to sex differences in mate selection - Females will value mate with high earning capacity - Males will value mate with domestic skills in societies where men’s role is to work outside the home and women’s role is to work inside - This hypothesis was tested by linking the gender equality of a culture to the size of the sex difference in mate preferences (37 cultures around the world used)  Women were more likely to value a mate with high earning capacity; men were more likely to value attractive  Men were more likely than women to value a mate who was a good cook and a good housekeeper (evolutionary theory could not explain this)  Sex differences in preferences for a mate with high earning capacity were highly correlated with sex differences in preferences for a mate with good domestic skills o Cultures in which high earning capacity is valued more by women are the same cultures in which domestic skills are valued more by men.  Sex differences in earning capacity and domestic skill preference were higher in more traditional cultures o Traditional culture not linked to physical attractiveness - Another study found that sex differences in mate preference were more common among individuals with traditional gender-role ideologies  Men with more traditional gender-role beliefs showed a greater preference for younger mates with domestic skills  Women with more tradition gender-role beliefs showed a greater preference for older mates with financial resources - This theory predicts that sex differences in mate preference will decrease as gender roles become more similar  Changes between 1936-1996: Women decreased the value they attach to mate’s ambition, men increased value they have attached to mate’s education and financial assets, and men decreased value of domestic skills  Both genders increase value of physical attractiveness 3) SOCIAL CONSTRUCTION THEORY - Social norms dictate what is desirable in a mate - STUDY: American and Israeli students interviewed about a significant romantic relationship and asked why they had fallen in love  80% men and 53% women mentioned physical appearance  89% men and 97% women mentioned personality  Only 4% of men and women mentioned status  Primary finding: more cultural differences than sex differences in mate preference, emphasizing how norms shape what is attractive in a mate - STUDY: United States and People’s Republic of China  Most important preference: honest, trustworthy, warm, kind, healthy, and sense of humor  Least important preference: age, popularity, wealth, and social status  More sex differences in China than the United States  Men preferred younger and physically attractive mate compared to women  Women preferred a mate with high social status compared to men  Differences larger in China than the United states—not surprisingly due to defined roles in this country  Only in China did men value a mate who was a good housekeep Relationship Initiation - Traditionally, males took the initiative in romantic relationships - Currently, it is more acceptable for women to ask a male on a date and there are forums set up for female initiation - Female initiation is not normative; evidence suggests that men expect greater sexual involvement when this occurs - One way to examine the development of relationships is to examine first date scripts - Script: a schema or cognitive representation of a sequence of events  These scripts are gender based—males proactive; females reactive  Males initiate, plan, set up transportation, pay and initiate sexual contact  Females accept or reject the invitation, plan, and sexual advances  Script for a male is much more rigid; their date script consists of more gender- stereotypical behaviour - Majority of males wish women would initiate sex more frequently as it shares the work of sex and makes them feel more desirable - Initiation of a relationship may be more awkward for homosexuals than heterosexuals  Homosexual relationships may develop out of friendship  Lesbian relationships are likely to develop out of friendship  Progression from friendship to romantic relationship can be difficult for lesbians  Lesbian friendships may face the emotional bond challenge that confronts cross- sex friendship among heterosexuals - Homosexual and heterosexual first date scripts have similarities and differences:  Similarities: grooming for the date, initiating physical contact, the actual date activity, and feelings of nervousness  Difference: Gay men place greater emphasis on the physical aspects of intimacy and lesbians place greater emphasis on emotional aspects of intimacy - Both heterosexual and homosexual males are more proactive than their female counterparts - Homosexual scripts do not have stereotypical gender roles THE NATURE OF ROMACTIC RELATIONSHIPS Intimacy - Individuals hold different definitions of intimacy - Empirical research suggests that women’s and men’s overall conceptualizations are quite similar - A central feature is self-disclosure—this is evolving as our access to one another has exponentially increased due to online communications and technologies - Younger generations—self-disclosure takes place via cell phones, text, and personal pages  2007 survey: 25% of teens communicate with boyfriend/girlfriend by cell phone or text between 12am-5am  Teens initiate and terminate relationships with these methods - Relation between intimacy and sex differs for women and men  An increase in intimacy is associated with a greater increase in passion among males than females  Females require greater intimacy than males to develop passion  Males are more likely than females to incorporate sex into their notion of an intimate relationship  Both females and males are likely to include romance in their conception of an intimate relationship (i.e., holding hands) - Most sexual behaviour occurs among two gay men and the least among two lesbians  Gay men develop passion more quickly than heterosexual females/lesbians - Lesbians and gay men report greater intimacy than heterosexual married people  Also report greater sense of autonomy Love - When it comes to matters of the heart, who is more romantic: men or women? - Men view love as more central to marriage then women do, in this sense men could be considered more romantic - In a 1967 study only 24% said no they would not marry they were not in love with but had all the qualities they were looking for - One reason men were more romantic than women had to do with the historical relationship b/w the sexes - Women were marrying not just a man but a way life thus women were taught to be practical in mate selection - In a study in 1994 over 80% of both m/w said they would marry the person if they weren’t in love - Russians in general have less romantic ideals than the Japanese or Americans - Men are more likely than women to have romantic notions about love and fall in love more quickly than women - Women are more likely to have a practical view of relationships, believing that it is possible to love more than one person and that economic security is more important than passion to a relationship - According to Lee’s theory of love there are three primary love styles  Eros or romantic love  Storge or friendship love  Ludus or game-playing love - There are also three blend of these love styles  mania or manic love-blend of eros and ludus  pragma or practical love-blend of storge and ludus  agape or pure love-blend of eros and storge - Women typically score higher than men on pragma and storge and men score higher on ludus - Sex difference in pragma is consistent with the previously reviewed research showing women are more practical than men when it comes to love - Sex diff in ludus is consistent with our stereotypes that men are less willing than women to commit to a relationship - Ludus is associated with lower relationship satisfaction and storge and pragma are unrelated to relationship satisfaction - W/M score similarly on eros - Emotional investment is a concept that includes some of these notions about love - It reflects ones self perception of being loving, loveable, romantic, affectionate, cuddlesome, compassionate and passionate - Largest sex differences in emotion investment were found in Switzerland, Australia and Germany - W/M are more likely to make within-sex comparisons in nations where female and male roles are more distinct, making it appear that women and men are similar to one another - By contrast w/m may be more likely to make between sex comparisons in nations where there is greater variability in female and male roles leading to the perception of larger sex differences Sexuality - Men seem to be more satisfied with their sexual relationships than women - Men may be more satisfied with sex than women because men are more likely to initiate sex or because men are more likely to disclose their sexual desires Attitudes towards sex: - Sexual attitudes and behaviours have become more permissive over the years - Sex between unmarried people is more accepted today-men slightly more than women - Women have negative attitudes towards sex compared to men - Men see more benefits compared to female (physical, pleasure, reduced loneliness, respect from friends) - Men have more permissive standards compared to women - Sex differences in attitudes toward sex depend on the degree of commitment in the relationship - Students from the US Japan and Russia all agree sex is more acceptable with a committed relationship than on a first date (men less than women OBVS) - W/e tend to believe there is a double standard in regard to sex-that it is more acceptable for men than women to engage in sex - Subsequent research showed that the double standard is a stereotypes and that sereotypes are more likely to be applied when attention is limited - Women are perceived to be less popular with more than 8 sexual partners, opposite for men-more popularity with more partners - Double standard is a product of the confirmation bias-that is people tend to notice info that confirms the double standard but fail to notice info that disconfirms it - Men find it more acceptable to attract someone’s else mate referred to as ―mate poaching‖-become involved with other women when they were in a committed relationship - Consistent with the social role theory, the sex difference in mate poaching was reduced in countries that provided great access to resources for women - Line is drawn when the mate is already married-both w/m feel it is wrong to engage in extramarital affairs - Men are more likely to view monogamy as a sacrifice - People seem to believe that women have affairs only when they are in love with another person but that men have affairs without being love First sexual experience: - Age of the first intercourse has declined over the years - Decline is larger among women - In the late 1960s the average age of first intercourse was 19 for women and 18 for men - By the 2000s median age was 17 - People are now marrying at older ages which mean that the first sexual intercourse is much less likely to be with the person who becomes one’s spouse - What predicts the onset of sex?  Alcohol, delinquency and for females, depression - Religion predicts girls waiting until they are 18 or older and anxiety predicts the same in boys - Family factors are strongly associated with the onset of sex among black and Hispanic families than white families Motives for sex: - Girls and boys reasons for having sex are similar: love for their partner, curiosity and sexual desire - 42% of women said love was a motive for sex, 10% of males said love - 66% of respondents identified personal causes of sexual desire in men such as physical need, hormones and booze - The difference in motives for sex is a function of peoples sex rather than sexual orientation Maintenance Strategies - Couples maintain relationships via a series of cognitive mechanisms that reflect both accuracy and bias  Couples who have a more accurate perception of each other are happier  Couples who view each other more positively than they really are and those who view each other as more similar are happier o Biases are equally associated with marital satisfaction for men/women - Relationships are also maintained through accommodation  Gender role attitudes—when one partner is one way (i.e., traditional) the other partner is more likely to become like that as well  Wives’ egalitarian views have a stronger effect on husbands than wives’ traditional views  Husbands’ t
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