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Chapter 12 Final Exam

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Glen Gorman

Gender Chapter 12: Paid Worker Role and Health  Past television shows: traditional nuclear families, men worked outside the home in a suit, women worked inside the home in a dress  Contrast scenario; today’s single-parent families, woman are responsible for emotional, practical, and economic support for children  More recent television shows: contrast traditional roles, single-mothers, gay couples with adopted children, even traditional nuclear families are depicted differently (both parents working and raising children)  Societal signs of shift; family restrooms: where both men and women can change their children’s diapers  Women and men juggle multiple roles; spouse, parent, paid employee  Role: a position in society governed by a set of norms (expectations for behaviour)  Role conflict; each role has different norms to adhere to  Multiple roles provides many resources  Paid worker role; gender discrimination, pay disparity, sexual harassment  Differential Exposure Hypothesis: differences in the kinds of roles women and men possess explain sex differences in health  Differential Vulnerability Hypothesis: roles have different effects on health for women and men (ex; parenthood is central for women’s self-concept, difficulties with children may be more strongly related to women’s health) Paid Worker Role  Belief that men and women should uphold traditional work roles has decreased and continues to decrease with the younger generation  Recent economic turndown; greater increase in unemployment among men than women  Differential exposure hypothesis of paid worker and good health; men are more likely to reap the benefits  Differential vulnerability hypothesis of paid worker and good health; stronger for men because society attaches greater importance to men working outside the home  Evidence for paid work influencing health in both men and women  Compare men who do and don’t work outside the home; studying effect of unemployment  Compare women who do and don’t work outside the home; studying employed women with two groups of unemployed –unemployed women and those who choose to not work outside the home Women’s Employment  Historical explanation of women being more distressed and having worse health; less likely to possess paid worker role  Work was associated with a number of resources  When women entered the work force people were concerned that; women who combined work and family would suffer role strain and role over-load and women working outside of the home would detract from the time spent taking care of their husbands and family  Women’s lower well-being due to less paid work and more domestic work  More hours worked outside the home is associated with higher well-being for women, more hours of domestic work is associated with lower well-being for women  Employed women report better psychological and physical health compared to unemployed women  Selection effect: do not know if employment leads to am improvement in health or if healthier people are more likely to be employed (evidence for both with longitudinal studies)  Employment increases self-esteem, instills a sense of accomplishment, provides more social contacts, affect one’s sense of control  Employment has potential to increase and decrease women’s resources; economic resources increases feeling of control, difficult to manage household responsibilities decreases feeling of control  More distress with high demands; women employed full time with children  Less distress with fewer demands (same level as men); women employed part time with children or employed full time with no children)  Healthiest women; employed part time with children  Some studies show; full time work is beneficial when women can afford to hire someone to help with household chores or if their husbands hold and equal share of household work Effects on the Family  Family demands are associated with increased distress; wife employment increases husband’s family demands and decreases wife’s family demands –more distress for men, less distress for women  Relative income is associated with reduced distress; wife’s employment decreases husband’s relative income and increases wife’s relative income –husband more distressed, wife less distressed  Wives’ employment alone didn’t influence husband’s distress  Husband’s distress increased when the wives’ employment decreased husbands’ relative income and increased family demands  White women; less likely to be major contributors to family income when they have children  African American women; more likely to be primary income providers or co-providers  Race difference stems from African American women having a longer history of participating in the paid labor force and that African American men face difficulties entering the work force  Income disparity; no implication for wives’ marital satisfaction, strong implications for husbands’ marital satisfaction  More hours worked a week by women; can decrease or increase marital satisfaction  Important; does the couple want to woman to work, working due to choice or to economic necessity Retirement  Phase into it by reducing hours or abruptly stop working  Many people choose to work after the age of 65 when still living with others  Organizations offer incentives to retire early so there are job opportunities for the younger generation  Impact on health; whether the person chooses to retire or feels forced to retire  Retirement can improve mental health when it is a choice  Those with higher incomes benefit the most form retirement  One study; those who had low job satisfaction, low occupational status or worked in poor environmental conditioned benefited more from retirement –would signify the removal of sources of stress  Retired women show better psychological and physical health than women who didn’t work outside the home –could be explained by selection effect  One study; women benefit more form retirement than men  One study; retirement is a greater risk for mortality for men than women  One study; showed no differences  One study; women gained more weight after retirement than men because they were less active  Factors effecting; whether one chooses to retire, income availability after retirement, centrality of paid work to one’s sense of self, context in which retirement occurs  Women are more likely to retire due to family obligations; caring for an ill spouse, a parent, or a relative Combining Paid Labour With Family Roles  More married working women; desire for more income, birth control, women’s increase in education, decline in wage gap  Role Scarcity Hypothesis: multiple roles have a negative effect on health because time and resources are limited and additional roles tap recourses –role strain o Predicts two kinds of strain from multiple roles:  Role Overload: difficulties in fulfilling obligations for all of one’s roles because time is limited  Role Conflict: the demands of one role conflicting with the demands from another role  Role Expansion Hypothesis: (role enhancement hypothesis) benefits are to be gained from having diverse roles o Additional resources gained from multiple roles outweigh the increase in strains that might arise from more roles o Stress buffering; resources form one role used to buffer strains form another role  Some studies; multiple roles are good for health, the healthiest people are those that possess all three roles; spouse, parent, and paid worker, the most distressed people don’t possess any of these roles  Some studies support the role expansion theory; greater number of roles is associated with less physical illness and increase in roles over 8-year period reduced the risk of health problems  Unmarried mothers have the worst psychological and physical health –lack emotional and financial support of a spouse  Role scarcity hypothesis; not but evidence but employed married people exercise less (greater effects for men)  Role Spillover: roles are enacted in a mutually exclusive way but affect one another Effect of the Paid Worker Role on Family Roles  Not clear whether paid worker role conflicts with family roles more for women or men – evidence for both  More normative for men’s paid work to spillover into the family so it is more noteworthy when women’s work affects family life  Greater work-family conflict; more hours worked outside the home, greater job pressures  Paid worker role can have positive and negative effects on family roles  Work conflicts with family; men more likely to choose work, women more likely to choose family –therefore more conflicts for men than women  Women are more likely to have flexible jobs, work part time, or not be paid workers; easier to prioritize family Effects of Family Roles on the Paid Worker Role  Family stress and conflict; lower job satisfaction  Family support; higher job satisfaction Difficulties in Combining Roles  Historically; man’s family role has been to provide economic support through paid employment, woman’s family role has been to take care of the home and children  Optimal conditions for paid work to benefit mothers’ health; husband who helps out at home, an income that can provide for high-quality child care, job that accommodates family responsibilities  Three kinds of tension in dual-earner couples o When men and women have different views about who should do what work outside and inside the home o When women and men have the desire for traditional roles but their economic status does not permit then to enact those roles o Egalitarian couples who are heavily involves in work outside the home –jointly devalue family responsibilities –ideas about what a family needs change to accommodate the couple’s egalitarian focus on careers  Hollow victory; when work devalues family Quality of Paid Worker Role  Some professions remain sex segregated; auto mechanic, carpenter, dental assistant, elementary school teacher  Women more likely to be employed part-time  Different job conditions for men and women Characteristics of Paid Work  Males value; high income, autonomy, challenge, recognition, and power  Female value; easy commute, physical environment, relations with coworkers/supervisors, job benefits, and opportunity to work with people  Managers, executives and higher-level positions; agentic aspects (strategy, motivation, task focus) are more important than communal aspects (communication, interpersonal skills)  Men prefer to work with things (engineering and science), women prefer to work with people (creative arts, nursing, teaching, social work)  Men receive more instrumental support at work; advice and collaboration with colleagues  Women are less likely to have mentoring relationships that lead to career advancement  Women face sexual harassment and discrimination, greater job monotony  Women receive more support at work Effects on Health  Men; high job demands are associated with lower job satisfaction, greater distress and depression (more than women)  Women; interpersonal conflict at work and perception of control related to job and health outcomes Discrimination  Access Discrimination: occurs when hiring decisions are made –based on sex o Rent-A-Centre; largest national sex discrimination case in history of U.S., $47 million settlement –firing and not hiring female employees o Approach; affirmative action  Treatment Discrimination: occurs after the person has a job and takes the form of reduced salary or opportunities for promotion o Wal-Mart; largest class action suit regarding treatment discrimination, women earned less than men in the same positions and were less likely to be promoted o Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Restoration Act; people can sue employers for discrimination as long as the complaint is filed within six months of the most recent discriminatory paycheck o Glass Ceiling: form of treatment discrimination that refers to barriers to the advancement of women and minorities in organizations o Women do not advance at the rate of men because hey are less likely to have mentors –fewer women in high-powered positions available to mentor and men are uncomfortable mentoring young women o Glass escalator: another term for treatment discrimination –availability of men to be promoted quickly when they take positions in traditionally female fields (nursing, social work, education) o Holding different standards for men’s and women’s performance –women are held to higher standards even though their performance is the same as men (especially when the task is masculine in nature) o Performance is evaluated more favourably if the domain is gender congruent o Women judged as more competent in interpersonal domains, men judged as more competent in agentic domains –which domain leads to pay increase and promotion Pay Disparity  Pay Disparity: form of treatment discrimination  Supply-side Theory: (human capital theory) emphasizes the difference characteristics of workers that may contribute to the wage gap –focus is on the person  Demand-side Theory: (discrimination) emphasizes the different ways women and men are treated –focus is on the environment o Difficult to estimate, accuracy depends on whether all factors are taken into consideration  Education, experience and other human capital factors don’t explain much of the pay gap  Evidence for both but more for demand-side theory Sex Segregation  Sex Segregation and comparable worth o Primary reason for pay disparity is that work is segregated by sex  Traditional gender role  More income for men, less for women  Men are in occupations such as technology, women are in occupations such as service industries  Has declines since the 70’s, but pay difference is still an issue o One theory: sex is used to determine the wage of an occupation  A job is worth less if women are
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