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Final

Gender Chapter 10 Final

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Department
Psychology
Course
PS287
Professor
Glen Gorman
Semester
Fall

Description
­ For every 26 girls that die between the ages of 1-4, 32 boys die ­ Life expectancy: WW:81 WM:76; BW:77 BM:70; HW:83 HM:77.2 ­ 1980-1990s: sex gap began to narrow, sex differences grew smaller ­ 2010: Gap was the smallest it had ever been—due to decreased mortality rates of cancer and heart disease in men and increased mortality with lung cancer in women ­ Lung cancer increased by 44% for women, because women's smoking rates peaked ­ Large race differences in mortality—sex difference greater for blacks than white • Due to high mortality rates of black men—their poorer health is due to health and function of their minority status (largest with those with less education) • Alot of these individuals have HIV/AIDS (i.e.,ArthurAshe the tennis play) Leading Causes of Death: ­ 20th century, men and women were most likely to die from infectious diseases, such as tuberculosis, influenza, pneumonia, and dipthermia (very uncommon today) ­ Today it is more common for people to die from diseases in which lifestyle factors play a role—top causes include: coronary heart disease, cancer, cerebrovascular disease (stroke) and chronic lower respiratory disease, then accidents (12/15 top causes higher in males) ­ Variety of factors that play a role in these causes of death, many of which include behavioural habits such as drinking, smoking, diet, driving while intoxicated ­ Alzheimer’s is the only disease that causes higher mortality in women—across all cultures ­ The largest sex differences appear for accidents, suicides, liver disease, and homicide ­ Men have higher rates of diabetes among Whites; Women have higher rates among Blacks/Hispanics (likely due to high rates of obesity) ­ Leading causes of death are influenced by a combination of age, race, and sex. ­ Hispanic M/W, White M/W and Black W 15-24: accident leading cause of death • Black M 15-25: Homicide leading cause of death • Mortality rates for Black people is higher than White people for 9 of 14 causes of death ­ Largest diff: homicide, hypertension, kidney disease, septicemia, diabetes ­ Black people less than half the rate of suicide and Parkinson’s Crime Statistics ­ Men are more likely than women to commit violent crimes, and men are more likely than women to be the victims of violent crimes, with the exception of rape. ­ For homicide, both perpetrator and victim are male 65% of the cases ­ When women are victims, they are almost 10 times as likely to be killed by a male as a female • However, women are four times as likely to kill men as to kill women • Women are more likely to be killed by someone they know across all age groups ­ The association of violence with poor health is stronger for women than men—history of violence associated with self-ratings of poor health, anxiety, depression and stomach problems in women ­ Violence is more likely to take place in relationship context for women Sex Differences in Morbidity: ­ Morbidity reflects illness and these rates have increased over time ­ People are living with diseases rather than dying from them ­ Early 20th century: Leading cause of death was infectious disease, typically single cause agent ­ The development of vaccinations/penicillin lead to people living longer; thus they had more time to develop and subsequently die from chronic disease ­ AChronic illness is long lasting and typically does not disappear; it can be fatal or nonfatal ­ Women have higher morbidity rates than men • The morbidity-free life expectancy has declined for both M/W but more for women • Women suffer from more acute illnesses/nonfatal chronic illnesses • Women suffer higher rates of arthritis, immune disorders, and digestive conditions • Women suffer from more painful disorders (i.e., migraines, abdominal pain, etc.) • At any point in time—women more likely to be ill or living with chronic disease ­ Women perceive their health to be worse than men do this is due to their higher rates of nonfatal chronic diseases that produce daily symptoms and distress ­ Women report more illness behaviour—behaviours that signify illness • I.e., Report more days in bed due to illness or greater physical limitations ­ Employed individuals—women take more sick days from work ­ Women report a greater use of health services compared to men—this peaks during women’s childbearing years • Some of women’s higher morbidity rates are related to gynecological problems ­ Sex differences in morbidity do not appear until adolescence (i.e., asthma and migraines are more prevalent among boys during childhood, but by early adolescences this changes) ­ Depression and stomach problems increase in adolescent girls ­ STUDY: 11- to 15-year- olds across 29 European and NorthAmerican countries: • Girls reported more health complaints (i.e., headache, stomachache, depression) • Sex differences increased with age and decreased in countries where women had more education and income (i.e., higher gender development index) ­ Health care utilization rates reflect the changes in female and male morbidity over adolescence • Childhood: boys visit health care professionals more frequently than girls • Adolescence: girls visit health care professionals more than boys • It is likely parents making the decision to go to healthcare professions during childhood EXPLANATIONS FOR SEX DIFFERENCES IN HEALTH ­ Six classes of explanations for sex differences in morbidity and mortality Biology Genes: ­ Women may have greater genetic resistance to some diseases compared to men—X chromosome carries more information than Y chromosome ­ An abnormality on an X chromosome in women may not actually produce a problem because they have a second X (becomes recessive) whereas males cannot override abnormality ­ This could be the reason more males suffer from congenital disorders (i.e., meningitis) Hormones: ­ Estrogen plays a significant role in women’s health (when young protects from heart dis.) ­ Sex differences in heart disease decrease once women reach menopause (more vulnerable) • Increase in heart disease may be due to lower levels of estrogen which result in changes in cholesterol and it may alter blood clotting process ­ 1980s/1990s women were put on hormone replacement therapy (HRT) after menopause to reduce risk of heart disease—results correlated but potential third variable • Study looking at HRT effects: increase risk of breast cancer/heart attack • Higher SES women more likely to use HRT; they were healthier individuals • Possible that when used on younger people could reduce risk ­ Oral contraceptives, containing estrogen, increase risk of heart disease ­ Estrogen also plays a hazardous role in development of some cancer (i.e., breast or endometrial) and may be linked to osteoarthritis Immune System: ­ Women’s immune systems may respond to viruses better then men’s and women seem to have a greater immune response to infection than men • Response could explain why women’s immune systems end up attacking th
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