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PS 366 Midterm 2.docx

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Todd Ferretti

PS 366 Midterm 2 Chapter 6: Sentence Comprehension and Memory October 11, 2012 Outline  Parsing o Assign elements of surface structure to linguistic categories o Internal representation of relationships in sentence o Immediacy principle: when we first see a word, access meaning, identify referent, fit into syntactic structure o Wait and see approach: postpone interpretation until know what is going on  Models of Sentence Processing o Word order constraints o Transformational grammar/ case grammar o Verb subcategorization frames o Working memory o Syntactic ambiguity  Modular Versus Interactive Processing in Sentence Processing o Two-stage Modular model/ Garden-Path Model  First stage: only the syntactic category of words influence initial interpretation  Simply determines what category a word is  Initial simplistic syntactic structure  Second stage occurs close behind the categorical parser, interacting with the initial interpretation  Info to use to resolve syntactic interpretation  Lexical information (filtering) o Verb subcategorization frames  Semantic plausibility/context o Do the words make sense  Real-world knowledge  Revise interpretation if necessary  Examples  Garden Path Model o Garden Path Model Assumptions  Incremental: word by word parsing  Serial Processing: one structure at a time  Simplicity: no unnecessary structure; build the least complex representation o Heuristics  Advantage to quickly compute some info, shortcut  Minimal attachment: when more than one structure is possible, build the structure with the fewest nodes  Late Closure: Do not postulate unnecessary structure. If possible, continue to work on the same phrase or clause as long as possible o Predicts difficulty at disambiguating point  Actual structure more complex than initial structure o Interactive Models  Constraint Based Models  Parallel integration of info constraints  All relevant info combines to constrains initial interpretation  Information that is more constraining toward different syntactic alternatives will have the most influence  Multiple syntactic interpretations are pursued in parallel o Alternatives compete for activation over time o Alternatives that are strongly supported “win”  Constraint Based Parsers o Story context effects:  The burglar blew up the safe with the rusty lock  Garden path sentence  Constraint  Presupposes which safe was blown up of many  Activate additional info to interpret the sentence  Create a context where sentence is not difficult to comprehend  When given an entire scenario where there is more than one safe the sentence is much easier to comprehend  McRae et al o Purpose  Examine when thematic role info influences syntactic processing  Collect reading time data  Make the predictions of alternative models explicit by using computational modeling  Quantify constraints  Implement competition mechanism  Interaction between info o Main Clause/ Reduced Relative Clause Ambiguity  Syntactic ambiguity resolution  Agent/subject biased  Patient/object biased o Competition- Integration Model  Alternative interpretations compete over time  Main clause  Reduce relative clause  Competition arises from multiple constraints providing support for alternative interpretations in parallel  Competition is taken as proportional to reading times o Conclusions  Event specific knowledge interacted with syntax at the earliest point  Competition modeling made the predictions from the different theories explicit  Overall constraint based model captured the data better than two-stage model  Integration of Visual and Linguistic Information in Spoken Language Comprehension o Purpose  Provide a strong test of whether non linguistic info can influence the earliest momemnts of syntactic processing o Head mounted eyetracking  Observe rapid mental processes that accompany spoken language comprehension in natural behaviour contexts by examining eye fixations o Visual context effects  One referent context: put the apple on the towel in the box  Look at towel as destination apple should go, then box  Two referent  Never look at incorrect destination o Conclusion  Visual info influences initial structure of linguistic input  Strong support for interactive view, and against modularity  Shows the value of using real world context October 16, 2012 Outline  Type of Figurative Language o Figurative Language  3 Functions  Expressing the inexpressible  Allowing vividness of expression  Expression of complex ideas  Very prevalent  One unique metaphor for every 25 words mention in a TV news program o Metaphor: the implicit comparisons of two things by saying that one thing is the other—My lawyer is a snake; anger is a bomb  3 Parts  Topic: usually the subject of the sentence, and is more complex than the concept to which it is being compared  Vehicle: is a simple concrete concept that denotes what is predicted of the topic  Ground: implied similarity between the topic and vehicle  Meaning of metaphors do not exist in the meaning of the word, emerges when constructing the GROUND  Leads to comparison between topic and vehicle for similarities and differences  Can be conventionalized or made up on the spot o Indirect Speech Acts: intended meaning does not correspond to the literal meaning. Assume recipient will infer what is being asked for  Ex  Can you pass the salt? Can you close the door? o Idioms: conventionalized expression that have figurative meanings that cannot be derived from the literal meaning of the phrase  Ex  Kick the bucket. Fly off the handle o Proverb: conventionalized expression that have figurative meanings that can be derived from the literal meanings of phrases  Often concrete instantiations of a general truth  Valid literal sentences  Ex  Lightening never strikes the same place twice o Metonymy: Using a familiar or easily perceived aspect of an object or situation to stand for the thing as a whole  Object: taxis are on strike  Place: Watergate changed American politics  Models of Figurative Language o Pragmatic Model  Conversational Maxims  Cooperative communication requires adherence to a set of conversational maxims (rules) o Quantity: information provided is assumed to be informative o Quality: information is assumed to be truthful o Relation: information is assumed to be relevant o Manner: information must be presented clearly  Two main functions o Provide rules for formulating utterances o Provide a way to communicate indirectly by violating maxims  3 Stage Model  Listener does extra cognitive work to figure out figurative meanings  Requires special process that occurs only after literal interpretation fails  Literal speech is obligatory and derived prior to a figurative interpretation  Problems  No longer comprehend figurative expression than it does literal ones  People do not need to detect a defective literal interpretation before constructing a figurative one  People generate a figurative interpretation even if the literal meaning is acceptable o Conceptual Metaphor Theory  Metaphors are not creative expressions, but instantiations of underlying conceptual metaphors  Use metaphor to make sense of experience, can’t put into words o Class-Inclusion Theory  Topic of metaphor is considered as a member of the class of concepts implied by the vehicle of the metaphor  Meanings determined by deciding how the topic fits as a member of the category defined by the vehicle  Vehicle can refer to several different categories o My job is a jail  Punishment  Building  Instantiation: identifying a general term with a specific meaning  Literal o The container held the apple  Metaphor o The pianist is a butcher o Graded Salience Model  People give priority to the salient meanings of phrases regardless of context  Salient meanings of a phrase is its lexicalized meaning  Salient meaning of novel figurative statements is the literal meaning  Salient meaning of a familiar figurative language is the figurative meaning o Direct Access Model  Sufficiently rich, elaborated, and constrained contexts can bias processing so that only context-appropriate interpretation are drawn  True for both literal and figurative statements  At initial moments of processing, the important distinctions is not whether literal or salient meaning is accessed but rather that the context appropriate sense is access directly o Constraint-Based Model  Model does not posit modular processing priorities  Different sources of info give support for competing figurative and literal interpretations in parallel  Context  Familiarity  If info constraints all point to the same interpretation, then people read the statement more quickly  As support for both interpretations increases, the time to read statement increases  Ex  A Cognitive Neuroscience Example o Feretti et al  Proverbs are unique because the meanings are true literally and figuratively  Greater conceptual overlap between proverb and literal biasing contexts  No difficulty associated with generating figurative interpretation  Used ERP methodology/ self-paced reading  Figuratively Biasing context  "What you need is an investment to shelter your profit", said Ann. "But it's been a volatile market since the crash," replied George. "Look, I lost a lot of money last year." "Don't worry, you'll be alright," she assured him. Lightning never strikes the same place twice."  Literally Biasing Context  "Let's take shelter from the rain under this broken tree," said Ann. "But it's dangerous to hide under a tree during a storm," replied George. "Look, the tree has been hit once already." "Don't worry, we'll be alright," she assured him. "Lightning never strikes the same place twice.”  Brain Wave Components over Multiple Words  Sustained slow wave potentials that develop across phrases and clauses o Show how some structures are more difficult to incorporate into mental model of text o More negative for difficult phrases and clauses o Frontal distribution  Summary  Reading time measure not as sensitive as ERP measure  Robust differences in slow cortical brain-waves; consistent with working memory predictions  Shows that by third word of proverb people are generating figurative interpretation Chapter 7: Discourse Comprehension and Memory October 23, 2012 Discourse Processing  Levels of Discourse Structure o Local (microstructure)  How adjacent sentences relate to one another (local coherence)  Local propositions support and add meaning to global structure  As sentences come in, we try to connect sentences with what was previously heard; coherence  If not coherent language processing shuts down o Global (macrostructure)  Overall theme, forms the general meaning of discourse  Theme est when connections between macro and micro levels are est  Coherence o Coherence/Cohesion  Coherence is a property of the mental representation or interpretation  Interpreted coherently without appropriate cohesive devices  Coherence is constructed through the establishment of an interconnected mental representation o Devices for Establishing Local Coherence  Lexical  Word is repeated or a close synonym is used o Make connection to past sentence o There was only one adult in the room. The grownup felt isolated  Substitution  Word is replaced with another that is not a synonym as an alternative to repeating the first o Forces you to make a connection o Jean was the only adult in the room. She hoped another one would show up  Ellipsis  Reference to an earlier word is understood in the absence of an explicit term o Jean was the only adult in the room. She hoped another would show up  Reference  Try to connect to different discourse  Pronoun (or demonstrative- the, this, that, those) is used to refer to an earlier term. Think back and connect  Comparative reference (same, similar, different) related current object with those in the past  Anaphor: referring expression  Antecedent: referent  Anaphoric reference-backward o Jean was the only adult in the room. She hoped another one would show up o Relating to what happened before  Cataphoric reference-forward o This is how you do it. You let the herbs dry and then grind them up in a food processor o Relating to what is coming up next  Conjunctions  Link phrases and sentences together ( and, because). Helps explain, adds causation  Creates and causal link to the proposition that Jean is the only adult present o Jean was often the only adult supervising the children because no one else cared  Other sources of coherence in discourse  Temporal: consistency in when the event occur o Confusing when talking about two different points in time o Recreate simulation to fit new time frame, move along time line  Location: consistency in where the events occurred o Same situation, create model  Causal: consistency in why the events happen o Conflicting reasons will create difficulty  Other Properties/Issue about Coherence  Partial Processing o Shallow or deep o Reinforces the idea that coherence is in the mind of the reader o Moses illusion  How many animals of each sort did Moses put on the Ark ? o Armstrong Illusion  What was the famous line uttered by Louis Armstrong when he first set foot on the moon?  Strategies used to establish coherence  Given information and new information  Given/New strategy o Process of understanding sentence in discourse context 3 stages  Identify given and new  New antecedent for given info  Attach new info to spot in memory  Direct Matching
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