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PS374SocialPsych.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PS374
Professor
Glen Gorman
Semester
Fall

Description
Optional bonus: Each week submit a multiple choice exam question, directly applicable to course content, challenging , each response item in the multiple choice must be a specific response (8weeks) Must submit at the beginning of class -use quotations sparingly CH1 Description, prediction, causality, explanation of phenomena Triplett 1898- first social psych experiment 1908 First social psych textbooks (topics such as mob violence) 1925- attitudes towards immigrants “social distance scale” 1933- racial and ethnic stereotypes study with Princeton undergrads, whether experience had to exist with prejudices or not, stereotypes were caused regardless of previous exposure to other groups 1939- study about authoritarian, democratic and laissez faire leaders, children did best with democratic leaders 1936- group norms, autokinetic effect The depression- establishment of Society for Psychological Study of Social Issues (SPSSI) WWII Social psych seen as an area of specialty, research on morale, international relations, most significant point for social psych – times of social upheaval require the understanding of social psychologists, social norms, trends, etc. Kurt Lewin 1936 thought to find solutions with his research -theory that our personal traits and our environment interact to create behavior, psychological state can change social environment -introduced idea of participant observation -action research: working as part of a community to improve how the solve social problems, working with those invested in the issue, those that understand the issue -post war experimental psych grows in popularity social psych declines -1969 an urge for social psych to become more relevant and applied social psych rises to popularity Intergroup attitudes: feelings toward a group to which a subject doesn’t belong -groups in conflict can cooperate in attainment of superiordinate goals -applied social psych is concerned with intervention strategies -psychologists’ values play a role in determining what problems to address -We usually use undergrad students to study out of convenience but it does not generalize well for all of society if there is such a small demographic Principle- idea of how something works, theory how things interact (more complex) CH2 Scope of a theory: how many human behaviours it can explain Midlevel theory- relevant to several situations Minitheory- only describes a particular behavior with particular circumstances Range: how many groups of people it describes Parsimony: simplest explanation is best Approach-avoidance conflict: when there are both positive and negative aspects to a choice Festinger-cognitive dissonance theory Postdescisional dissonance: whichever choice chosen seems better than the alternative once the choice is already made Effort justification: if we work harder for something it seems more worth it Insufficient Justification: after they lie for very little external justification they convince themselves it wasn’t a lie Self-consistency dissonance theory: self concept doesn’t match one’s behavior Individualist countries are more concerned about personal consistency than that of the group Janis- Groupthink- stronger with group’s illusion of invulnerability, morality, rationalization, stereotyped views of outsiders, conformity pressure, self-censorship, illusion of unanimity and mind guards (who shield the group from criticism) Reducing groupthink: individual accountability, anonymity, outside opinion, impartial leader, second chance meeting CH3 Direct (systematic) observation: using a checklist of predetermined behaviors Experimental: manipulation of variable, random assignment (can show causality) Quasi- experimental: no random assignment, manipulation of variables Correlational: examine relationship between variables (shows correlation) Descriptive: no manipulation, only measurement, summary of measurement Internal validity: extent to which one can infer that an independent variable has influenced the dependent variable (related to whether experimenter has eliminated effects of extraneous variables) Interrupted time series design: observations taken before treatment are spread out Non-equivalent control group: not done with random assignment so the group is considered non- equivalent, when added to an interrupted time series design it is called control time series design Correlation coefficient: degree to which variables are linked, between -1 and +1 Ecological validity: extent to which experience of subject is similar to real life External validity: extent to which research findings can be generalized to other people Grounded theory: move beyond people’s accounts of their experiences to form a theory about interactions about a certain topic Ethics: Respect for dignity Minimization of harm and risk Informed consent Freedom to withdraw Privacy and confidentiality Minimal use of deception CH4 Intervention: strategy intended to influence the behavior of people for the purpose of improving their functioning in a social or practical problem Personal intervention: people carry out in their daily lives (ex waitpersons smiling to improve tips) Programmatic interventions: organized collection of activities designed to reach certain objectives Stakeholders: groups who have a vested interest in the possible development of a program or be affected by it in some way Intervention: 1. Needs assessment (whether or not there is a problem) can be formal (systematic research) or informal 2. Arriving at a solution a. Distinguish between precipitating factors (cause the problem), and precipitating factors (perpetuate the problem) b. Intervention hypotheses, if-then statements that describe the outcome 3. Setting goals and designing the intervention a. Program activities: specific components and procedures of the program b. Goals: ultimate long-term outcomes c. Objectives: short-term outcomes d. Program logic model: explanation or blueprint of how program activities lead to goals, cause and effect flow e. Some use theory of change model instead of program logic to show assumptions being made and preconditions that may affect the change 4. Implementing the intervention: actual process of enacting intervention activities Evaluation to show it is based on sound empirical theoretical assumptions, conducted with ethical safeguards required, satisfactory ratio of benefits to costs. Reactance: when a source of influence threatens people’s sense of freedom they react in opposition Process evaluation: determine whether program has reached target group, whether activities implemented in described manner Outcome evaluation: how well program meets its objectives and goals. Developmental evaluation: when interventions are in a stage of early innovation, when solutions are unclear to find new solutions to a problem Evidence based (best practice) Programs: accountability, using scientific measures to apply research to an existing program Comprehensive community initiatives: aim to transform using a variety of stakeholders Wraparound initiatives: target high risk with diverse team of support persons Secondary data: -question of accuracy, availability, form (units), relevance (when data is published it is usually several years old, may not be generalizeable to population in question) Survey: high cost/time, extent to which respondents represent population Regression discontinuity design: track same participants, not quite experimental process 3 types of interview 1. Informal conversational (may have a guideline but informer goes where they want) Types of questions to ask: experience, behavior, opinions, values, feelings, knowledge, sensory Level of analysis 1. Individual 2. Interpersonal 3. Group 4. Organizational 5. Community 6. Society/culture Sampling: selecting units, varies depending on questions, social problem Probability sampling- equal probability of being selected Exerimental: random assignment to a condition Stratified random sampling: subgroups, divide the population into subgroups, select the number of people from each subgroup based on proportions. Can only really be used if you represent all subgroups and have an accurate record of who is a member of what group. Non-probability sampling: no random selection, may be easier to do this than probability sampling Accidental: use samples of convenience, ex. Undergrad studies. Hard to generalize to the rest of the population, but a good place to start, could be easier, cheaper, often shouldn’t be the final study Purposive: one or more predefined groups ex. Google targeting you with advertisements by tracking your surfing habits Intensity sampling: information-rich cases that manifest thr phenomenon of interest intensely but not extremely Maximum variation sampling: purposely selecting a wide range of subjects to get a variation pn dimensions of interest Criterion sampling: meet a specific criteria ex. Cancer patients for an intervention helping cancer treatment process Data analysis: read transcripts, try to find common themes and code responses into theme categories Program: an organized set of activities having as its main objective the production of some kind of change in the program’s recipients or their environment Evaluation: extent to which desired change has occurred, and extent to which it can actually be attributed tp program activities Ch 7 Violence in media: Cathartic effect? Not really -crime rates increased sooner in places where TV was introduced sooner, it was an increase in non- violent crime- such as theft- commercials may have made salient to people what they don’t have Marketing: -Marlboro in 1954 wanted to sell to women, they adopted Marlboro man to sell to men in 1955, sales went up over 3000%, 1972 it became the largest selling cigarette company in the world -1900 .5 billion spent in advertising -1952 12 billion -2007 280 billipn dollar, 900 for every man woman and child in the US, 2% of US GDP Key component of advertising: 1. Attention 2. Acceptance 3. Action -catchy music -humor -incompleteness -vividness: more attention, more elaboration, retention in memory, producing more accessible attitudes, more vivid has more emotional response which causes us to encode deeper Print ads, Fennisa, Das, Fransen -effects f vividness on informational vs transformational (experience) ads, some people better able to visualize things than other people, this is important in advertising, vividness did not affect those chronically low in vividness visual imagery -transformational ads may have over ridden vvi tendencies to get attention from everyone Incompleteness: Cognitive response theory, active participation is more likely to lead to attitude change than passive reception, by leaving message or image incomplete the audience fills it in Brand names: -must be clear and present in advertisement, vary message to avoid ad wearout Celebrities: increases product recognition Music: -centrally, jingles less likely to produce counter arguing -peripherally, happy music creating happy move leading to positive feelings about product -music uses up processing power of the brain, there are then fewer resources for processing messages for product -can postpone ad wearout Humor: may increase attention, may also decrease comprehension, may distract from underlying message, but create a better feeling. Polarizes existing attitudes. Dual mediation model: attitudes can directly carry over from ads to product or indirectly -can brand change your thinking? Apple symbol people became more creative, after seeing Disney people were more honest -Bandurs shows tv violence causes aggression, vicarious learning, we learn through watching others behaviours and whether they are punished or rewarded Social cognitive theory: attention (how salient the behavior is to individual), representational process (how memorable the behavior is), behavioral production process (rehearsing the action), motivational process (motivated to perform) Motivation increasing factors for TV violence: they see it as justified, rralistic, identify with perpetrator of violence. -NOTEL study, compared people with no tv, some tv, a lot of tv, measure of rates of violence before and after, aggression rates did not change but rates of physical and verbal aggression increased in youth with access to television -centerwall, homicide rates were normal after tv introduced, 15 years later it had doubled US, Canada, South Africa -playing co operative video games may increase prosocial behaviors Behavior is overdetermined when there are multiple causes -need to increase sensitization to violence, increase empathy, children watching woody woodpecker, some debriefed to empathize with victim and they enjoyed violence less, females generally enjoy less Neo association: mere presence of a wrapon make people more violent Cultivation theory: TV operates as primary socializing agent in today’s world Pornography: any sexually explicit material depicting sexual activities in unconcealed ways Embedded sexual material: involves content that is intensely sexual in nature but not the focus of the story Erotica: non-aggressive sexual activity between willing, caring partners Non-violent pornography: non aggressive sexual activity, casual, uncaring Violent pornography: violence juxtaposed with sexual activities underlying themes of dominance Embedded violent sexual material: sensual scene followed immediately by violence, ex slasher movies -small but consistent relation between exposure to pornography and negative attitudes toward women Zillman and Bryant: participants who viewed pornography were less sexually satisfied, less monogamous, more accepting of myths of health risks associated with sexual; repression, more accepting of premarital and extramarital sex Reducing the harm: -ban? -teach critical viewing skills -debrief -inform people of harmful effects ahead of time Political news: Agenda setting: media decides what issues we discuss Public agenda: issues the public finds important Policy agenda: issues policy makers see as important Media agenda: issues media covers extensively Political priming: idea that issue the media are covering influence the information people use to judge the president and other politicians -people who read newspapers are more confident in government, those who watch TV, listen to radio are more cynical about politics Framing: how the story is presented Issue frame- focuses on important issues Strategy frame- focuses on motivations behind the actions, tends to increase cynicism -when both candidates have smear campaigns there is a reduction in voting as a “lose-lose” situation is created -culture can play a role in how much media affects us Ch 9 Theory of planned behavior: multiple determinants of behavior, attitude toward the behavior ( behavioral beliefs and evaluation of outcome), subjective norms (social context) Self- enhancement effect: academic self-concept affecting motivation and performance in school settings Skill development effect: good performance in school leads to a more positive academic self-concept Rodriguez (2009): students with high academic self-concept were more likely to use learning strategies that were more in-depth, more critical and have better academic attitudes and performance Cokley: lack of culturally relevant material and lower expectations of minorities may cause academic disidentification causing the student to believe school doesn’t matter Self-handicapping: creating barriers to successful performance prior to an achievement task, ready excuse for failure Zuckerman: self-handicappers less likely to adapt to college, do more poorly Urdan: more self- handicapping in competitive school environment rather than one that focuses on effort and learning Self-perception theory: we infer our own attitudes and beliefs by observing our actions in a detached and logical way Overjustification effect: if rewarded for something we already like doing we grow to dislike it Lepper: when children expected a reward for drawing they liked the activity less and were less creative Self-determination theory: extent to which we feel we are in control and not pressured Extrinsic motivation: Integrated regulation- most self determined, integrate internal ad external motivation into set of goals into sense of self Identified regulation- engage in activities to help them achieve goals that have become important to them, more utilitarian Introjected regulation- individual is ruled by feelings of should or ought Amotivation- feelings of low self-efficacy, incompetence Hennessy and Grossman: reducing over justification effect -training on maintaining intrinsic motivation even if rewarded, they did even better than those without reward, possibly counteracted detrimental effects of rewards Social comparison theory: we compare ourselves to others objectively or socially, downward when we feel threatened, upward to motivate us to improve. We tend to compare ourselves with others we perceive as similar to ourselves 18% high school drop out rate, 30% had A or Bs and 10% had Ds or Fs -cost of 2 billion $ -higher for males -higher risk of unemployment -lower self esteem -more likely to be arrested -higher frequency of mental health problems Factors: -lack of stimulation, boredom -expectations: Rosenthal and Jacobsen (1968) classic study of lower class children, elementary school education, gave “IQ” tests to children and labelled them low IQ, average and gifted “bloomers”, at the end of the year “bloomers” had higher IQ due to more stimulation and questions and help from teachers -pygmalion effect: effect found that teacher’s expectations change their interaction with students leading to self-fulfilling prophecy -golem effect: negative effects of teacher’s low expectations, may be more pervasive for minority students -self-fulfilling prophecy: broad social psych theory that what we expect of a target changes how we interact with them and the outcome is similar to expectations because of this -stereotype threat: anxiety students feel when faced with stereotypes about their group, results in poorer results How do teachers affect student learning: Climate- teachers create a more positive learning atmosphere for those they expect to do well Feedback- they pay more attention to and give more immediate feedback to the students they expect to do well Input- teachers provide more opportunities, choices and challenging work Output- they interact more, give the student a chance to respond Teacher expectation tends to relate to stereotypes based on: gender, ethnicity, social class, special needs Rubovits and Mayer: black gifted children at praise, most criticism, called on less Gender
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