Study Guides (248,075)
Canada (121,283)
Psychology (684)
PS381 (7)


3 Pages
Unlock Document

John Stephens

Chapter 9 Conceptual Basis of Behavioural Assessment -empirically based, focus on observable behaviour, idiographic, situational specificity Functional Analysis- exact analyses are made of the stimuli that precede a behaviour and the consequences that follow -problem description, identification of controlling variables, evaluation of adaptive significance, selection of treatment, evaluation of outcome Organismic variables- physical, physiological/cognitive characteristics of the individual SORC Model S-stimulus/antecedent conditions that bring on the problematic behaviour O-organismic variables R-response or problematic behaviour C-consequences of problematic behaviour Behavioural Interview- gain a general impression of the presenting problem and of the variables that seem to be maintaining it -historical data, strengths, past attempts to cope Unit of Analysis- length of time observations will be made, type/number of responses to be considered -intensity, frequency, duration Ecological Validity- whether or not clinicians do obtain really representative samples of behaviour Ecological Momentary Assessment- electronic diaries are used to record thoughts, feelings, behaviours Assessment of Dysfunctional Cognitions (Beck)- self statements, automatic thoughts, cognitive schemas, irrational beliefs Chapter 11 Psychological Interventions Client- people in distress of state of “incongruence”, looking for help, white, middle or upper middle class, better educated Psychotherapists- well being, expectations and competence all related to outcome, Efficacy Studies- place a premium on internal validity by controlling the types of clients in the study Effectiveness Studies- emphasize external validity and the representativeness of the treatment that is administered Depth of a problem- the “changeability” of a variety of conditions/behaviours (PTSD is difficult depression is not) Limits of Confidentiality- child abuse, abuse of disabled or elderly, protect the client and others, mandated by court, consulting with colleagues Common Factors- set of features that characterize many therapy orientations and that may be the source of the positive changes effected by psychological treatment (empathy, warmth, expert role, catharsis, therapeutic alliance, distress reduction, insight, mastery) Non Specific Factors- factors that contribute to a positive treatment outcome (expectation of improvement) Goals of psychotherapy research- to understand efficacy of treatments (outcome), understand mechanisms by which treatment works (process), understand the factors that influence the efficacy of treatment Single Subjects Design -repeated assessment of behaviour of interest, establishment of baseline, treatment clearly specified, replication Multiple Baseline Design -measure same behaviour over small group of participants, all have different baseline assessments times, look for change occurring with the introduction of treatment Analogue Research- testing a psychotherapy under very carefully controlled circumstances with an non clinical sample ie college students Construct validity -Confidence that change occurred for the reasons the researcher thinks it occurred Statistical conclusion validity- Confidence that statistical analysis led to correct conclusion Statistical Significance- the difference between the mean score of the treatment group and the mean score of the control group is larger that would be expected to occur by chance Clinical Significance- the practical value of the effect of an intervention Stages of Change 1. Precontemplation- client has no intention of changing behaviour 2. Contemplation- client is aware that a problem exists but has not yet commited 3. Preparation- client intends to make a change in near future 4. Action – client changes their maladaptive behaviour 5. Maintenance- client works on preventing relapses 6. Termination- made necessary changes and relapse is no longer a threat Chapter12 Life Instincts(Eros)- positive and constructive aspects of behaviour (bodily urges, creativity) Death Instincts (Thantos)- dark side of human behaviour (self destruction, neurotic) Reality Anxiety- real danger from outside world Neurotic Anxiety-fear that ones id impulses will be expressed Moral Anxiety- fear that one will not conform to the standards of the conscience Insight- total understanding of unconscious determinants Working Through Process- careful and repeated examination of how ones conflicts and defences have operated Resistance- patient’s efforts to ward off methods of resolving problems (talk less, late for appointments, discuss trivial matters, intensification of symptoms, “flights into health”) Jung’s analytic Psychotherapy -less emphasis on sexuality, psychosexual stages and greater emphasis on universal themes Collective unconscious- universal, archetypes (inborn dispositions) introversion vs extroversion Goal=individuation –fully develop ones unconscious capacity Adlerian Psychotherapy- focus on social relationships, with insight client will “choose” to give up dysfunctional behaviours,
More Less

Related notes for PS381

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.