Chapter 7.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PS381
Professor
Richard Walsh- Bowers
Semester
Fall

Description
Intelligence Testing: Yesterday and Today - Compulsory education in the United States and other countries resulted in a very diverse student body; uneducated students or non-English speaking  Failure rates shot up; pressure do identify successful students - Psychological scientists believed mental abilities could be measured  Binet became leader when he devised the Binet-Simon test to identify individual differences in mental functioning  Intelligence was a “faculty” that was inherited - Used in schools, industries, military forces and governments to look at individual differences that might affect performance - Argument that the tests discriminated through the inclusion of unfair items The Concept of Intelligence Reliability. - Refers to the consistency with which individuals respond to test stimuli - Reliability does not imply validity Test-Retest Reliability: the extent to which an individual makes similar responses to the same test stimuli on repeated occasions Equivalent-forms Reliability: parallel forms of a test are developed to avoid the preceding problems Split-test Reliability: test is divided into halves and participants’ scores on the two halves are compared (one possible index of internal consistency) - Internal consistency has to do with the items being highly correlated with one another; computing average of all correlations (ALPHA) Interrater or inter-judge Reliability: level of agreement between two or more raters who have evaluated the same individual independently Validity. - The extent to which an assessment technique measures what it is suppose to measure Content Validity: degree to which a group of test items actually covers the various aspects of the variable under study - I.e., a test to measure overall adjustment but that contained only items dealing with adjustment at work (NO CONTENT VALIDITY) Predictive Validity: test scores accurately predict some behaviour or event in the future - I.e., Test designed to predict school success is valid if scores today reflect the school achievement behaviour of children 2 years hence Concurrent Validity: relating today’s test scores to concurrent criterion - I.e., teachers judgments of school success Construct Validity: test scores relate to other measures or behaviours in a logical, theoretically expected fashion - I.e., Test of alienation: test might be expected to correlate with depression Definitions of Intelligence Three classes of definitions for intelligence tests: 1. Emphasize adjustment or adaptation to the environment—adaptability to new situations, the capacity to deal with a range of situations 2. Focus on the ability to learn 3. Emphasize abstract thinking—ability to use range of symbols and concepts Theories of Intelligence 1. Factor Analytic Approaches - Spearman posited existence of g factor (general intelligence; common elements) and s factor (specific intelligence; unique elements) - Intelligence is a broad, generalized entity - Thurstone: seven group factors of primary mental abilities—Numerical Facility , Word Fluency, Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Speed, Spatial Visualization, Reasoning, and Associative Memory 2. Cattell’s Theory - Emphasized centrality of g; hierarchical model of intelligence - Described two important second order facts a. Fluid ability: genetically based intellectual capacity b. Crystallized ability: capacities, tapped by the usual standardized intelligence test, that can be attributed to culture-based learning 3. Guilford’s Classification - Purposed structure of the intellect (SOI) model and used a variety of statistical and factor analytic techniques to test it - Used model as a guide in generating data - Taxonomy rather than theory; 120 separate intellectual abilities - Believed components of intelligence could be organized into three dimensions: a. Operations: cognition, memory and divergent production b. Content: areas of information in which the operations are performed—figural, symbolic, semantic and behavioural c. Product: units, classes, system, relations, transformations and implications (when operation applied to content, six possible products) 4. More recent developments - Taking on a more cognitive or information-processing look - Focus on speed of information process or strategies of processing - Gardner: theory of multiple intelligence  Describes family of eight intelligences: linguistic, musical, logical- mathematical, spatial, bodily-kinesthetic, naturalistic, inter/intrapersonal  Criticism: “talents” rather than forms of intelligence - Sternberg: triarchic theory of intelligence  Function of basis of three aspects of intelligence—componential (analytical), experiential (creative) and contextual (practical [street smart])  Emphasis on planning responses and monitoring them *The g factor of Spearman and the group factors of Thurstone have not been outgrown The IQ: It’s Meaning and Its Correlates The Intelligence Quotient (IQ) Ratio IQ: - Mental age (MA) was an index of mental performance; items passed - IQ developed to circumvent problems arising in using the difference between the chronological age (CA) and MA—IQ = MA/CA x 100 - In measuring intelligence we cannot be sure that we are dealing with equal- interval measurement (cannot say we have absolute zero) Deviation IQ: - Ratio IQ is significantly limited with older age groups; may show decrease - Wechsler introduced deviation IQ—comparison of an individual’s performance with other peers of the same age; gives IQ similar meaning with diff groups Correlates of the IQ: - Intelligence tests are designed to predict what societies values; society decided which abilities are valued and rewarded (i.e., verbal ability, reading, etc.) School Success: - Success in school related to motivation, teacher expectations, parent attitudes, etc. - Any behaviour is determined by many variables not just g or s intelligence Occupational Status and Success: - IQ and occupation status related; along with job performance - After gaining entry, degree of success may be a function of nonintellectual factors Demographic Group Differences: - Differences between sexes ONLY for specific abilities - Males higher on spatial and quantitative ability; Females higher on verbal ability - Hispanic/African lower IQ than European; could be environmental factors Heredity and Stability of IQ Scores: Heritability of Intelligence: - Intelligence is influenced by genetic factors; provided by behavioural genetics - IQ is malleable—the environment does play some role in the development of intelligence; it is not all about genetics - Heritability is not stable (20% in infancy, 60% in adulthood, 80% in
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