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Midterm Review.pdf

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Wilfrid Laurier University
Terry Mitchell

Qualitative Research - Multimethod in focus, involving an interpretive, naturalistic approach to its subject matter… qualitative researchers study things in their natural setting to make sense of phenomena in terms of the meanings people bring to them - Empirical: Explores relationships using textual data o Case study, observation, ethnography o Result not often generalizable, but often transferable Positive for Qualitative - Inductive – Researcher builds concepts, hypotheses, and theories from the details - Open-Ended – Responses allow for flexibility - Person-Focused – Not Theory-Focused (no assumption) - Quality > Quantity - More Ethical - No preconceptions? - Naturalistic Mays and Pope::::: Goal: Development of concepts which help us to understand social phenomena in natural (rather than experimental) settings, giving due emphasis to the meanings, experiences, and views of the participants Context for the rise of Qualitative Methods in social sciences and medicine - Complex social problems - Global Health Issues - Limits of positivism and the strengths of naturalistic inquiry to provide new knowledge - Complementarity of Qual and Quan used in Mixed Methods Studies When to do Qualitative Research 1. When little is known about a topic 2. Sensitive/ Stigmatized Topic 3. Lived Experience – Promote Understanding 4. Black Box – For Evaluation 5. Explanatory Detail for Quantitative Studies 6. Action Research Contributions of Qualitative Research - Increased understanding of hard to reach and vulnerable populations - Primary prevention -> Looking up stream, man who was too busy saving people at the bottom of the lake then to see what was going on upstream - Contributes to increased knowledge re: subjective, emotional, social, spiritual- and complexity of multicultural, diverse perspectives and lived experience in diverse contexts - Development of instruments with greater validity Naturalistic, Inductive, Researcher as Human Instrument, Focus on CONTEXT, focus on PERSPECTIVE, Concepts, language and meaning of participants Purposeful sampling vs. random/representative Emergent design & Tolerance of ambiguity Negotiated Outcomes Tentative and Focused Findings Paradigmatic Camps - Logical Positivism - Post-Positivism - Social Constructivism - Critical Growing Influence of Constructivist Paradigms in Social Sciences - Subjectivity, interpretivism, qualitative research methodologies - Qualitative research increasingly present in psychology Qualitative Methods - Indepth Interviews - Focus Groups - Observations - Document Analysis Terminology - Nomothetic (study/discovery of general scientific laws) vs. Ideographic (Individual Cases or events) - Exogenous (from outside, vs. Endogenous (From within the system)) - Etic (Investigates hpw the researcher thinks – culture needs an outsider perspective to interpret) vs. Emic (Investigates how local people think – how do they imaging and explain things) - Deductive (starts out with general, to reach specific) vs. Inductive (starts out with specific, to reach broad) Phenomenology (study of subjective experience) – Philosophy Hermeneutics – Theory of text interpretation - Includes written, verbal, and non-verbal communication to achieve coherent explanation of them Ethnography - Research designed to explore cultural phenomena - Knowledge and the system of meaning in the lives of a cultural group Grounded Theory – Discovery of theory through the analysis of data - First step is data collection, points are coded and grouped into concepts - Categories are formed and are the basis of a hypothesis Heuristics – Reflexivity: Process by which researchers reflect upon the impact of their own history, values and social status on the research and the relationship between researchers and participants - Standard of quality and ethics in qual researcher - Examine how context shapes our own and others’ experiences throughout the research process - Involves deep self-questioning o Self o Participants o Audience Positivism - Objectivity, Singular verifiable truth - A priori Hypothesis - Goal: Predict and Control Post-Positivism - Objective but cannot capture true reality - Falsification vs. Verification, Black Swan, Nomothetic - Goal: Same as Positivism Constructivism - Multiple realities - Hermeneutic, Ideographic - Goal: Understanding Critical - Constructed, lived experiences - Participatory methods - Goal: Emancipation and Transformation Methodologies - Heuristics - Hermeneutics - Phenomenology - Ethnography: Study of knowledge - Narrative - Participatory Research - Grounded Theory Symbolic Interaction - What common set of symbols and understandings has emerged to give meanings to people’s interactions - Emphasizes the importance of meaning and interpretation as essential human processes - People create shared meanings through their interactions, and those meanings become reality Semiotics: Related tradition focusing on language and behaviour – how do signs (words, symbols) carry and convey meaning in particular contexts Blumer – 3 Major Premises 1. Human beings act toward things on the basis of the meanings that the things have for them 2. The meaning of things arises out of the social interaction one has with one’s fellows 3. Meanings are handled and modified through an interpretive process used by the person in dealing with the things he or she encounters Hermenutics: What are the conditions under which a human act took place or a product was produced that make it possible to interpret its meanings? - What something means depends on the cultural context in which it was originally created as well as the cultural context in which it is interpreted - The whole is greater than the sum of its parts The hermeneutic circle: Idea that ones understanding of the text as a whole is established by reference to the individual parts and ones understanding of each individual part by reference to the whole - Meaning of a text must be found within its cultural, historical, and literary context Ethnography: What is the culture of this group of people? - Primary method is participant observation - Intensive fieldwork in which the investigator is immersed in the culture under study - Classical Ethnography: Carrying out fieldwork, observing activities of interest, recording field notes, - Autoethnography: Form of self-reflection and writing that explores the researcher’s personal experience and connects this autobiographical story to wider cultural, political, and social meanings and understandings - Institutional Ethnography: Explores the social relations that structure people’s everyday lives o Ordinary daily activity - Critical Ethnography o Focuses on implicit values expressed within ethnographic studies and on the unacknowledged biases that may result from such implicit values Five Criteria for Quality Research in Ethnographic tradition 1. Substantive Contribution: Does this piece contribute to our understanding of social life? Is a grounded social science perspective evident? 2. Aesthetic Merit: Does the text invite interpretive responses? Is there complexity? 3. Impact: Does the text affect the reader emotionally and/or intellectually? Does it inspire new research? 4. Reflexivity: How has the author’s subjectivity been both a producer and a product of this text? Is the presentation such that the reader can offer judgements about the writer’s point of view? 5. Expression of Reality: Does the text seem true – a credible account of a cultural, social, individual, or communal sense of the real? Life History Interviews - Extends the idea of text to include in-depth interview transcripts, life history narratives, historical memoirs, and creative nonfiction Grounded Theory - Emphasizes steps and procedures for connecting induction and deduction through the constant comparative method, comparing research sites, doing theoretical sampling, and testing emergent concepts with additional fieldwork - Emphasis on inductive strategies so that results are grounded in the empirical world Open Coding: Identifying, naming, describing, and categorizing phenomenon found in texts Axial coding: The process of relating codes to each other through a process of inductive and deductive reasoning Selective Coding – Choosing one category to be the core category and relating all others to the chosen category Memos – short documents written as one proceeds through the analysis Orientational Qualitative Inquiry - Denies any open-mindedness in the search for grounded theory - Begins with explicit theoretical perspective that determines the conceptual framework - Ideological orientation of the researcher determines the focus of inquiry Research Design - Goals: Why are you doing this study? – Exploration, description, theory dev’t, evaluation - Theoretical Framework o Development of research question o What do you want to undersand? o Reviewing the literature - Timeline and Budget - Methods o Ethics Review o Recruitment o Interviewing, observation, focus groups, photo voice, document review etc. - Instrument Developmeent o Develop interview guide, focus group guide, survey etc. Applied Research - Case Studies o Precise description of a cluster of phenomena – can be person, family, community, organization - Comparative Studies o Comparison of individuals or cases (i.e. care concepts of health across culture) - Retrospective studies o Reflecting back – life history interviews, archival document analysis, Naturalistic – Qualitative methods only Mixed Method Sampling - Convenience - Purposeful o Criterion o Intensity o Maximum Variation o Typical Case o Unique Case Interviewing Skills - Naïve - Analytical, not judgemental - Silence (best tool to use) - Comfort – allow for distance and dignity - Keeping on track – Apologize for interruption – bridge o
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