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PS389 qualitative methods, summary of all lectures and readings.docx

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Wilfrid Laurier University
Terry Mitchell

Qualitative research: multimethod, interpretive, naturalistic approach to its subject matter, study things in their natural settings to make sense of or interpret phenomena in terms of the meanings people bring them, empirical research with contextual data rather than quantitative data Goal of quantitative research: development of concepts which help us to understand social phenomena in natural (rather than experimental) settings giving due emphasis to the meanings, experiences, and views of the participant. Inductive: start with a question, observations and experience Deductive: start with theory then collect data to confirm or disconfirm hypothesis Can qualitative complement quantitative? -generate info helpful to structuring questionnaires, instruments -help generate hypotheses -triangulation -aid in interpretation and reporting of quantitative findings Reflexivity: process by which researchers reflect upon (and make visible) the impact of their own history, values and social status on the research and the relationship between researchers and participants, standard of quality and ethics in qualitative research. We must acknowledge our own bias to eliminate it from research, via- bracketing, reflexive journaling, writing detailed first person accounts Benefits of qualitative research: Inductive, open-ended, person focused, rich detailed data, more ethical, access information quantitative may miss, less-biased, naturalistic, meaningful, learn from participant validity Negatives: more subjective, less generalizable, difficult to interpret, time consuming, requires a lot of resources, reliability and validity issues, less control so no cause and effect relationships When to do qualitative research: -when little is known about a topic -when subject is sensitive, stigmatized, population is vulnerable -lived experience promotes understanding -black box- for evaluation, we may know from quantitative research what happens but need qualitative to know what is actually happening and how and why -explanatory detail for quantitative studies -can engage in social action, action research Primary prevention (like looking up stream in story of woman and the river), rather than just documenting the problems we can start to prevent them in action research Negotiated outcomes: about ethics and rigor, go over results with the participants, they have control, make sure you are representing the study the way they want it Paradigms: 33 - Logical positivism (highly quantitative verification of a hypothesis) - Post-positivism (still highly focused on specific hypotheses but more focused on rejecting hypotheses) - Social constructivism (emphasis on connection between scientist and what is being studied and the idea that each person has their own reality) - Critical (every person is part of their circumstance of their society and this has inevitable reflection in their work) Ideographic: individual Nomothetic: universal Exogenous: of external origin Endogenous: internal origin Etic: universal construct Emic: individual construct Design strategies: • Naturalistic • Emergent/ flexible • Purposeful sampling Data collection strategies: • Qualitative data, thick descriptive • Personal experience and engagement • Empathic neutrality • Dynamic systems Analysis strategies: • Unique case orientation, inductive analysis moving towards creative synthesis • Holistic perspective • Connect sensitivity • Reflexivity- researchers address their own subjectivity Critical subjectivity: organized and disciplined in subjectivity Neutrality: non-judgmental Empathy: interest caring, be human Verstehen- understanding, knowledge with empathy and context Systematic inquiry- important for systematic inquiry • There are also several different research paradigms from which to analyze research; positivism (highly quantitative verification of a hypothesis), postpositivism (still highly focused on specific hypotheses but more focused on rejecting hypotheses), constructivist-interpretivism (emphasis on connection between scientist and what is being studied and the idea that each person has their own reality), critical-ideological (every person is part of their circumstance of their society and this has inevitable reflection in their work) • Each scientist also has personal beliefs about how their own beliefs should reflect in their work, how the work should be represented and the procedures that should be taken • Many counseling psychologists are pulling from different paradigms and approaches, and combining them depending on their needs and being flexible is an asset to the field Study of Survivors Dragon boat Racing: -co-investigators: seniors in the field -community advisory group: women who are survivors and dragon boaters -organizational support: funding Started dragon boating in 1996, now there are teams all over the world -what is psychosocial impact of Survivor boat participation -community-based participatory, mixed method design -interviewed 56 women’ -surveyed 400 women on 4 standardized measures, quality of life, mental adjustment to cancer, post-traumatic stress, transcendence -interview themes: inspiring hope, awakening to the self, regaining control, becoming stronger, living life to the fullest -increased dragon boat training was associated with reduced risk of recurrence, even more so than those just getting exercise on their own Methodology (the way)- ethnography, participatory action research etc. set of beliefs Methods (the how)- interviews, participant observations, focus groups, document analysis HEAR: Humility Empathy Awareness Respect Ethical research Tri-council, emphasizes morally acceptable ends and acceptable means, you need a good reason to do the experiment as well as do it keeping in mind dignity, free informed consent, respect for vulnerable persons, for privacy and confidentiality, justice and inclusiveness, balancing harms and benefits, minimizing harms, maximizing benefits. Ethical reviews: needed for universities, funders, journals, write a protocol and submit to review panel, ensures you consider ethical issues, gives time to flesh out issues, most review boards are in hospitals and universities, not a lot in communities. But this creates a barrier of power, to increase knowledge and publish it you have to go through a review board that already has power of knowledge. -participation must be based on free and informed consent -review boards make a lot of assumptions about the people that will be studied: only considers consent on the individual level, assumes a high level of education, assumes participants will be comfortable entering into a contractual agreement with researcher, situates humans as helpless “research subjects”, ability to consent can change over time -researchers obliged to break confidentiality when: current and ongoing child abuse, risk to self or others. They need to know the relevant laws in their area and how to report. Have to believe reporting is necessary for mitigating the risk. Balance initial risk and foreseeable consequences. Sometimes reports can be subpoenaed by police, how do we mitigate this risk? Remind them that you may have to report, ask participants to purposely refrain from giving researcher their name, ensure that participants are aware that they could choose to disclose and the possible consequences. Psychologists have a history of involvement in research that reinforces status quo The mission of the APA is to benefit society and improve people’s lives The six major approaches: -ethnography -grounded theory -case study -symbolic interactionist -narrative -hermeneutic -phenomenological Ethnography: based on field work where you live in community for months or years (Margaret mead or Jane Goodall) to try to understand the culture in terms of the people themselves, prolonged observation. From Anthropology. Has been widely criticized as ethnocentric as it first emerged as the study of “the other”. Emic- view of insider, this is what we want in research, be true to subjects of study Etic- view of the outsider, implies some degree of detachment or “higher” level of conceptual analysis Five criteria for quality research in creative ethnographic tradition: 1. Substantive contribution- does this piece contribute to our understanding of social life? 2. Aesthetic merit- does it invite interpretive responses? Is it complex? 3. Impact- does it affect other emotionally or intellectually? Does it inspire new research? 4. Reflexivity- need to reflect on researcher’s own biases 5. Expression of reality- does the text seem true? Is it a credible account? Types of ethnography: -classical ethnography -auto ethnography -Institutional ethnography- less about individuals more about institution culture -Critical ethnography- more ideological, want to engage in working with a group of people, participatory action research, identify and address social inequalities Margaret Mead- studied difficulties of adolescents everywhere, concluded teens in Samoa do not experience the same struggles as teens in U.S. Phenomenological: emphasizes a focus on people’s subjective experiences and interpretations of the world Grounded theory: a methodology to create theory, founded in sociology, emphasizes meaning and interpretation as essential human processes. A response to rigidity of behaviorism. We attribute social meaning to objects and it changes our behavior. Don’t start with hypothesis testing, begin with inductive research, exploration. Blumer 3 major premises: 1. Human beings act toward things based on the meanings we have for them 2. The meanings that arise are due to interaction with peers 3. Meanings are handled and modified by the person holding them and their interpretive process Strauss and Corbin- Charmaz-compares “objectivist” and constructivist approaches to grounded theory, critiques objectivist view Symbolic interaction: came out of sociology, moved on to create grounded theory. Emphasizes the importance of symbols and how they are used in understanding and interpreting human behavior. Process of analysis: Open coding: identifying, naming and describing and categorizing phenomena found in texts Axial coding: relating codes to each other through a process of inductive and deductive reasoning Selective coding: choosing one subject as core and relating all others to this one Memos: short documents written as one goes through the analysis Hermeneutics: trying to find under what conditions a human act took place, a product was produced that make it possible to interpret its meaning. What something means is related to where it was originally created and in the context in which we currently observe it. Focuses on the problem of interpretation. Hermeneutic circle: the meaning is the sum and interactive cyclical interpretation of the parts. Neither the whole nor the individual can be understood without reference to one another and hence it is a circle. The meaning of a text must be found within the context of its cultural, historical and literary context. Narrative approach: try to find what the narrative story reveals about the person and the world from which it came, informed by Hermeneutics, honors people’s stories as data that can stand on their own as pure description- narrative documentary of experience. It extends the idea of text to include interviews, life history memoirs and creative non-fiction. Includes personal stories, graffiti, suicide notes, family stories to reveal cultural and social patterns through the lens of individual stories. Orientation (ideological): research with a frame of reference, denies any open-mindedness as researcher determines the focus of the inquiry Feminist inquiry: some of the first to break down barriers between researcher and participants, acknowledge rapport, valuing women’s ways of knowing, participatory processes supporting consciousness-raising and reflexivity, going beyond knowledge generation for “its own sake” to engage in using knowledge for change. Other examples include: LGBTQ, African American Research designs: Basic research: knowledge for knowledge sake, scholarly pursuits Applied research: research applied to solve a problem, improve something Summative evaluation: what we usually do, have a research question, run a program, do a pre and post evaluation. Post evaluation is summative. Formative evaluation: Testing done along the way at intervals Action research: research with the goal of improving, can be applied to any methodology Research design: 1) Goals: exploration? Description? Theory development? 2) Theoretical framewor
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