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SY101 detailed final exam review readings + lecture.rtf

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Dana Sawchuk

Lecture 1 IntroductionWhat is the social construction of realityStudy of societySpit vs saliva no chemical difference socially constructed difference in the way people choose to describe or defineSocial construction of realitypeople creatively shape reality as they interact with one another in the context of a certain social group or culture What is the sociological imagination Spit more acceptable for males to spit difference between spit and spitting Deviant behavior depends on who is engaging in the behavior and when and where the behavior occursC Wright Mills one that coined sociological imaginationsaid that it allows one to see human behavior in their broader social cultural and economical contextBiography personal history socialHow can we study the drinking of coffee sociologically1 Symbolic value RitualsSocial interaction going on a date meeting 2 Use as a drug Social acceptance depends on cultureGenerally not frowned upon or seen as using a drug3 Social and economic relationships Global enterpriseMany individuals groups organizations and cultures4 Past social and economic development Relation to trade and colonization Relationship between social solidarity and rate of suicidetextbook Reading Chapter 1 Social solidarity The degree to which group members share beliefs and values also the intensity and frequency of their interaction The more social solidarity in a group the less likely someone is to take their life because the individual feels more anchored to their social world Ex Married adults are less likely to commit suicide than unmarried adults because marriage creates social tiesValues Ideas about what is good and bad right and wrongTheory A tentative explanation of some aspect of social life that states how and why certain facts are relatedDurkheims theory of suicideStates that the suicide rate declines and then rises as social solidarity increases Altruistic suicide Occurs in settings that exhibit very high levels of social solidarity according to Durkheim high levels of social solidaritynorms tightly governing behaviour Egoistic suicide Results from poor integration of people into society because of weak social ties to others according to DurkheimOccurs in settings that exhibit low levels of Anomic suicidesocial solidarity according to Durkheim results from vaguely defined norms governing behaviourSocial structures Relatively stable patterns of social interactionSociological imagination The quality of mind that enables one to see the connection between personal troubles and social structures C Wright Mills An important step in broadening our awareness involves recognizing that three levels of social structure surround and permeate us consider these levels as concentric circles radiating outwards1 Microstructure Patterns of intimate social relations formed during facetoface interaction Ex Family friend circles work associations2 Macrostructure Patterns of social relations that lie outside and above your circle of intimates and acquaintances An important macrostructure is patriarchy the traditional system of economic and political inequality between women and men in most societiesEx Religious institutions and social classes 3 Global structures Important because inexpensive travel and communication allows all parts of the world to become interconnected culturally economically and politically Ex International organizations patterns of worldwide travel and communication economic relations among countries Lecture 2 Major Perspectives The Three RevolutionsScientific revolutionBegan about 1550 Encouraged the view that sound conclusions about the workings of society just be based on evidence not just speculationOften linked to specific ideas Copernicus theory that the earth revolves around the sun Science is less a collection of ideas than a method of inquiry 1609Galileo pointed his newly invented telescope to the sky made some careful observations and showed that his observations fit Copernicus theory Core of scientific method using evidence to make a case for a particular point of view Mid17th centuryphilosophers were calling for a science of society thus sociology was bornDemocratic revolution Began about 1750 Suggested that people are responsible for organization society and that human intervention can therefore solve social problems Before this revolution many believed that God ordained social order American revolution 177583 and French revolution 178999 helped solidify the idea Showed that society could experience intense change in a short period Proved that people could replace unsatisfactory rulers Ultimately suggested that people control society Most of the justification for sociology as a science arose out of the democratic revolutions that shook Europe and North AmericaIndustrial revolution Began about 1775
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