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SY101 midterm

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Marcela Cristi

MIDTERM Lecture 2  Social integration- the degree to which people are tied to their social group—is a key factor  Social Control- regulative force; societal and political mechanisms that regulate individual and group behaviour in an attempt to gain conformity Origins of sociology  Social/ political changes in the 18 and 19 century brought a new way of looking at the world Contributing factors to the change in society…  Industrial Revolution (1760s to 1840)  Enlightenment (17 and 18thc)  French Revolution (1789) How specifically sociology developed  Emerged in the mid nineteenth century in Europe  3 contributing factors … o Industrial Revolution (1760s to 1840) o Imperialism o Success of the natural sciences Auguste Comte (1798-1857)  Took an evolutionary view of development – always moving toward perfection (every time was better then the last) o Religious/Theological o Metaphysical o Scientific  Methodological dimension: the use of the scientific method to understand the social world  Socio-political dimension: apply that knowledge to make the world a better place Karl Marx (1818-1883)  Class conflict- the struggle between capitalists (bourgeoisie) and the working class (proletariat) is inevitable & necessary  He called the capitalists the Bourgeoisie  Working class called Proletariat  Conflict can only end when the working class unites in revolution and creates a classless society Emile Durkheim (GUY) (1858-1917)  He was best known for founding sociology as a scientific discipline and for defining the boundaries of its subject matter  Social facts – the patterned ways of acting, thinking and feeling exist outside of any one individual EX. Born in 1920 there was a way of thinking about gays (being a crime/ illness) born in a time of transition so some people still think this but taken off as an illness- no longer an illness. Patterned way of thinking  Study of suicide  Types of Suicide: o Egoistic (lack of social integration) o Altruistic (too much social integration) o Anomic (lack of social control--rules, norms) o Fatalistic (too much social control) Lecture 3 Max Weber (1864- 1920)  Studied differential rise of capitalism across Europe  Theorized that Religion might explain the difference The protestant Ethic: Calvinist Doctrine… Max Weber started Calvinism  Pushed people to work hard, to save money, and re-invest as a duty to god and to glorify him  Value relevance: what social scientists choose to investigate varies according to their values  Value freedom: findings & reporting of data should not express personal value judgments Harriet Martineau (1802-1876)  “How to Observe Morals and Manners” – her book - Through a scientific method (the science of society) - Advocated the study of institutional records, cemeteries, prisons - Popular culture - Suicide In Canada:  The Canadianization Movement: encouraged the government and policymakers to increase knowledge of Canadian society through research, publications, and the hiring of Canadian- trained faculty  Sociologist Hubert Guindon helped Canadians better understand the rise of the nationalist and separatist movement in Quebec, which was largely spurred on by tensions over language Lecture 4  Symbols- things that we attach meaning to, the basis of social life (words, signs, gestures)  Face to face interaction: studies specific behaviors of interacting individuals, in in face-to-face social settings or encounters - How people define a given situation - How people act towards one another - How they make sense of those interactions - Characteristics of functionalism Functions: the beneficial consequences of people’s actions that maintain equilibrium  Views society as a whole unit, made up interrelated parts that work together People bind together because of shared norms, values, beliefs, etc  Social order based on voluntary agreement about appropriate behaviour  Normal state: when all the parts of society fulfill their functions  Abnormal state: when the parts of society do not fulfill their functions  Latent: unintended or hidden functions that remain by unacknowledged by participants  Dysfunction: are consequences that disrupt society’s stability and equilibrium Conflict theory  Karl Marx (1818-1883)  Max Weber ((1864-1920)  Ralf Dahrendorf (1929)  Lewis Coser (1913) Bourgeosisie- small group of capitalists who own the means to produce wealth and exploit workers Proletariat- the mass of workers they exploit. They resist by means of… labor strikes, absenteeism, voting for leftist political parties. Feminist perspective  Feminists: Try to understand and change the ways in which gender socially organizes our public and private life First wave: mid-19 and early 20 centuries  Women’s suffrage movement  Wanting to vote- got their vote in 1920’s Second wave: 1960s and early 1970s  Civil and political rights Third wave: 1980s & 1990s to the present  Feminist Scholarship & Theory Varieties of Feminist theories Marxists/ critical feminist theories:  Focus on class & economic position  Social class is more fundamental then gender in explaining inequality  Call for revolutionary changes in the world economy to eliminate capitalistic exploitation of both men and women Liberal:  Legal restraints and customs are at the root of women’s secondary role in society  Have been at the forefront of changes that have tackled sexist privileges in the existing structure  Pay equity, day care, better education, career opportunities, etc. Radical:  Patriarchy oppresses women  Characterized by power, dominance, hierarchy and competition Lecture 5 Levels of analysis  Macro: social class, race relations, multinational corporations  Micro: pelvic examinations, how people interact on street corners, parents/ child relationship etc. 6 methods for research  Surveys (Quantitative)  Participant observation (Qualitative)  Qualitative interviews  Secondary analysis  Content Analysis (Documents)  Unobtrusive measures  Quantitative methods- the amount of something, focus on measurement, counts, numbers, statistics  Method: structured questionnaires or surveys  Hypothesis: a statement of what you expect to find  Operational definitions: precise ways to measure variables  Variables: factors with measurable traits that change or vary from one person or situation to another Lecture 6 A research model 1. Select a research topic/problem 2. Define it 3. Review the literature 4. Formulate a hypothesis or research question (quantitative research) 5. Choose a research method (above) 6. Collect the data 7. Analyze the results- Qualitative 8. Share the results Ethics in sociological research- confidentiality Basic requirements: - Obligation to report research findings, including negative or unexpected ones - No falsification of results or plagiarism - Openness, honesty and truth (sharing findings) - No misrepresentation - Understand and disclose finding source Culture: the sum total of human- produced values, and behaviors shared by a group of people Characteristics:  Humans learn about their culture  Through customs & tradition, and  Create culture through interaction with others  There is nothing “natural” about culture  Culture is learned and shared behaviour  Culture varies between places and at different times in the same society  Culture provides “moral imperatives”--ideas of right and wrong  Culture is adaptive, yet cumulative Material Culture: physical, tangible things Nonmaterial Culture: non-tangible aspects of culture Cultural Universals: Customs/practices that occur across all societies Lecture 7 Gestures: the use of one’s body to communicate with others Language: a system of symbol that can be strung together in an infinite number of ways for the purpose of communicating abstract thought Does language create, or simply communicates reality?  Sapir- Whorf hypothesis (1930) - Suggests that language determines our consciousness (rather then the other way around) and thus out perceptions of objects and events Values- ideas about what is desirable in life Norms- expectations of behavior Folkways- norms that are strictly enforced Mores- norms we insist people comply with that are essential to our core values Taboo- norms so strongly engrained that even the thought of its violation is repul
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